An analysis of sabda and vAk – Part 2

Background

In the last part, my analysis was focused on vakypadiya(4). Reference to sabda and vAk are present in Vedas, Upanishads and Vedanta.

My point was that the pattern of expression of Universe and the pattern of expression of human speech is same.

Vakyapadiya that deals primarily with Human expression of speech and its grammar, that divides the human expression into three parts and fourth part as para, starts from the expression of Universe because the human expression is modeled on Universe’s expression.

This pattern of expression is also mentioned in the Rg veda mandala 1 hymn 164.

Rg Veda Mandala 1 Hymn 164

The Rg Veda sloka of Mandala 1 Hymn 164 explains this expression of Universe. Even if one does not agree with the explanations provided by ‘my analysis’, I wanted to highlight the general flow of this sloka and highlight how vAk is the Universe’s expression in vedas as much as human expression in vakyapadiya and other texts.

I have not translated all the slokas here. I have translated the slokas to highlight the flow.

Highlights from the Hymn

This Hymn describes the Universe as a deva yajna(3), a sacrifice. The Hotr is offering oblations into the Yajna. In this Yajna, the devas of Universe evolve.

Sloka 1

asya vÀmasya palitasya hotus tasya bhrÀtÀ madhyamo asty azanaH

tRtiyo bhrÀtÀ ghRtapRSTho asyÀtrÀpazyaM vizpatiH saptaputram

Translation

Of the expressions/emissions (vAmasya) of the burning (palitasya) by Hotr’s,  whose brother madhyama/in middle is lightning (azanaH) , third brother is agni (ghrtapRSTha), which makes visible (apazyam) the the seven children of vizpati.

Meaning

The expressions that come of the burning of oblations by Hotr, whose middle brother in the middle is lightning, third brother is agni, by which the seven putras of vizpati are seen.

Analysis

At the outset, the sloka talks of vAma (emissions), madhyama (in the middle), apazyam (visible), which when we connect with second sloka, will come to know that it is all about the Yajna in which Universe’s beings evolve.  These correspond with vaikhAri, madhyama and pazyanti of vakyapadiya.

My analysis

Palita is becoming burnt-up, getting grey-haired, old etc. ghrtapRSTha is one who has ghee at the back. It is agni.

This exactly describes what vakyapadiya describes in terms of Universe’s expression. The outward are the expressions/vAma (vaikhAri) that come out of the yajna, the middle are the lighting up oblations (madhyama) and the third is the agni that makes visible/apazyam (pazyanti) the seven putras of Vizpati.

viz-pati means one who enters (viz) as the Lord. Lord of the people or home or tribe.  Agni is called viz-pati and is also the grhtapRSTha.

This vizpati, agni, produces seven children. Agni produces light and heat. The heat is in six forms (2). Hence vizpati has seven children, one form of light and six forms of heat.

Agni brings out, makes visible the light and heat. That is pazyanti. The oblations get lighted up because of the light and heat of Agni. That is madhyama. Out of this sacrifice, expressions are emitted, which is the vAma

Sloka 2

sapta yunjanti ratham ekacakram eko azvo vahati saptanÀmÀ

trinÀbhi cakram ajaram anarvaM yatremÀ vizvÀ bhuvanÀdhi tasthuH

Translation

The seven (children of vizpati) (sapta) unite/interact/yoke (yunjanti) the ratham with a single wheel (eka cakram), single horse (eka azva) carrying (vahanti) them. The universe (vizva), its beings etc (bhuvanadhi) stand (tasthuH) on the three navel (tri-nAbhi) single wheel (eka cakram), not subjected to old age/undecaying (ajaram), irresistible (anarvam).

Meaning

The seven (children of vizpati) unite/interact/yoke the ratham with a single wheel, single horse carrying them. The universe, its beings etc stand on the ratham, driven by one azva,  with three navel single wheel, not subjected to old age/undecaying, irresistible.

Analysis

From the above, irrespective of how we map the texts, vizpati the Agni, children of Agni et al talk about Universe’s expression, rather than human.

My analysis

The seven (six forms of heat and light) unite/interact/yoke a ‘ratham’, with a single vector force-field (cakram)(1), single electromagnetic force-field (azva)(3), they carry the named seven.

I had translated cakra as Spin 1 vector force-field (eg Weak force-field), azva as electromagnetic forcefield.

‘ratham’ is one that keeps moving. The one that keeps moving, arising from a single vector force-field, driven by a single electromagnetic force-field, that carry the light and six forms of heat primarily are the electrons around the atom.

These electrons are subject to azva (electromagnetic force field) and a tri-nAbhi cakram (weak force-field).

The tri-nAbhi cakra is the sudarshana cakra which I translated as weak force-field (1). It is tri-nAbi because it manifests on positively charged, negatively charged and neutrally charged particles (1).

The tri-nAbhi cakra (sudarshan chakra), the weak force-field is ajaram (not subjected to old-age/decay), as it is the one that causes the old-age/decay. It is anarvam, as it is irresistible and there is no known matter in the universe that can resist it.

The Universe’s matter and beings stand on this ratham of electrons which are subjected to weak force-field and electromagnetic force-field.

Thus the seven children of vizpatiH, the light and six forms of heat, are carried in the ratha of electrons which subjected to weak force and electromagnetic forces.

It is absolutely true, that primary carriers of light and heat are electrons of the atom.

Sloka 3

imaM ratham adhi ye sapta tasthuH saptacakraM sapta vahanty azvÀH |

sapta svasÀro abhi saM navante yatra gavÀM nihitÀ sapta nÀma

Translation

In addition (adhi) to this ratham (imam ratham), which (ye) the seven stood (sapta tasthuH), seven wheeled (sapta cakram) azva carry (vahanti) the seven (sapta) . Seven’s own power/energy (sva sAra) together (sam) is invoked (havanta) where the seven names (sapta nAma) are placed (nihita) in the gAva.

Meaning

In addition to this ratham, which the seven stood, seven wheeled azva carry the seven . Seven’s own power/energy together is invoked where the seven names are placed in the gAva. gAva is translated as ‘cows’.

Analysis

Since slokas talk about a seven-wheeled, irrespective of how we map the texts, they are talking about Universe’s expression.

My Analysis

In addition to the seven situated on this ratham (of electrons), seven cakra (seven vector force-fields), carry the seven (light and heat), driven by electromagnetic force-field. The seven cakra’s (vector force-fields) own energy/power is invoked together where the seven names are placed in the ‘gAva’.

‘gA’ are the strong force-field (3). ‘gAva’ are the mother nucleus of atoms. It is the prthvi. The seven (six heat and one light) are also carried in addition to the ratham (of electrons) by the seven vector force-fields which are placed in the nucleus (gAva).

The sapta-chakra mentioned here are the vector force-fields of the nucleus.

The seven vector force-fields of nucleus are the 3 color forces (R, B,G), up quark, down quark and the two weak vector forces of W+ and W- that act on the nucleus. These sapta cakras (seven vector forces) are invoked together in the ‘nucleus’ (gAvam)

Sloka 12

pajcapÀdam pitaraM dvÀdazÀkRtiM diva ÀhuH pare ardhe purISiNam

atheme anya upare vicakSaNaM saptacakre SaDara Àhur arpitam

Translation

Pitara, five divisioned (pancha pAdam), twelve shapes (dvadaza akrtim), the sky (diva), is said (ahuh) to be half (ardha) possessed (purISiNam) farther away (para). Those others (atha ime anya) submit (arpitam) to the very perceptible (vicaksana) on top (upara) of the seven-wheeled (sapta cakra), six-spoked (sad ara).

Meaning

Pitara, which is five divisioned, 12 shapes, the sky, is said to be half possessed farther away. Those others submit to the very perceptible on top of the seven-wheeled, six-spoked.

Analysis

Again, it is very clear the slokas are talking about the Universe’s expression. Pitara referred here is the dyaus Pitr, the diva or sky.

My analysis

The mAtr is nucleus(3). The pitr is the sky the electron clouds around the nucleus (3).  The electron-shells are five sub-shelled (pancha pAda) and have twelve shapes/forms (Akrti) of orbitals.  The farthest of them from nucleus are less occupied and those closer to nucleus are under the attraction of nucleus.

The saptacakra as we saw earlier is the atomic nucleus (seven vector force-fields). It is has six spokes because it has six shells.

Sloka 13

pajcÀre cakre parivartamÀne tasminn À tasthur bhuvanÀni vizvÀ

tasya nÀkSas tapyate bhUribhÀraH sanÀd eva na zIryate sanÀbhiH

Translation

On the all round changes (parivartamAne) of the five spokes (panca Ara) of the saptacakra, the beings of universe (bhuvanAni vizva) stand (tasthuh). The ‘akSa’ of that is heavily laden (bhurbhArah) and not heated (tapayate). From the times of old (sanAd sanabhih) it is not perishable (na ziryate).

Meaning

On the all round changes (parivartamAne) of the five spokes (panca Ara) of the saptacakra, the beings of universe stand. The ‘akSa’ of that is heavily laden and not heated. From the times of old it is not perishable.

Analysis

Again this sloka is about the ‘basis’ of beings of the Universe, the Universe’s expression.

My Analysis

The nucleus has multiple shells analogous to electron shells. Transformation/changes of five shells of nucleus (where most protons and neutrons exist) lead to the most matter and beings in universe. The core of the atom, the nucleus is heavily laden and does not get heated up (vibrate that much compared to electrons).

The nucleus of atom is highly stable, heavy, imperishable from the beginning unlike electrons of atom which move out and in of atoms. It also does not vibrate much due to thermal energy as compared to electrons of atoms (does not carry as much thermal energy as electrons).

Sloka 19

ye arvÀjcas tÀM u parÀca Àhur ye parÀjcas tÀM u arvÀca Àhuh

indraz ca yÀ cakrathuH soma tÀni dhurÀna yuktÀ rajaso vahanti

Translation

Which (ye)are on the same side (arvajca) those (tAm) move away (parAca) it is said (ahuh), which are opposite (parAjca) they (tAm) come near (arvAca) it is said (ahuh).  Indra and Soma, which (yA) they made (cakratuh), those (tAni) loads (dhurAna) join (yuktA), they carry (vahanti) the rajasa (dust particles or atoms).

Meaning

Which are on the same side those move away it is said, which are opposite they come near it is said.  Indra and Soma, which they made, those loads join, they carry the rajasa (dust particles or atoms).

Analysis

This sloka talks about what Indra and Soma made. It talks of being same repelling and opposite coming near/attracting. Again it is about Universe’s expression.

My analysis

Like charges repel. Opposite charges attract it is said.  In nucleus of atoms too (the saptacakra that the sloka is discussing) protons and protons repel.  Indra (Proton binding energy) and Soma (Strong interaction) when they make, the load of nucleus, those loads join together and the atomic nucleus carry the atoms.

The binding energy of protons (Indra) and Strong interaction (Soma) overcomes the repulsion and creates the load of atomic nucleus that carry the atoms (rajasa which is translated as ‘dust’ or ‘minute particle’).

Sloka 20

dvÀ suparNÀ sayujÀ sakhÀyÀ samÀnaM vRkSam pari SasvajÀte

tayor anyaH pippalaM svÀdv atty anaznann anyo abhi cÀkazIti

Translation

Two (dva) supraNA companion (sayuja) friendship of equal (sakhaya samanam) in a tree (vrkSam) in all round (pari) embrace (zasvajate). Of both,(tayor)  one (anyah) eats/consumes/enjoys (atti) the delicacy (svAdv) of pippalaM; not eating/enjoying/consuming (anaznann) the other (anya)  observes it (abhicaksate).

Meaning

Two supraNA companion friendship of equal in a tree in all round embrace. Of both, one consumes/interacts/enjoys the delicacy of pippalaM; the other only observes and does not consume/interact/enjoy.

Analysis

The effect of Indra and soma is to create two birds in a tree of which one eats the delicacy of the tree and other only observes it.

My analysis

The atomic nucleus thus formed by Indra and Soma has two birds in them. One is proton which interacts (consumes) and other is neutron which does not (only observes)

Sloka 42

tasyÀH samudrÀ adhi vi kSaranti tena jIvanti pradizaz catasraH

 tataH kSaraty akSaraM tad vizvam upa jIvati

Translation

That (tasyAH) samudra extremely drips/descends/flows (adhi vi ksaranti)  by that (tena) they live (jIvanti) four regions (pradiza catasraH). That way (tataH) comes the akSara on which (tad)  the Universe (vizva) lives/subsists (upajivati).

Meaning

That samudra extremely drips/descends/flows in four regions by that they live (life evolves). That way comes the akSara on which the Universe susbsists.

Analysis

It’s clear that the sloka is talking about the universe’s expression and origin.

My analysis

Sam-udra means ‘udra together’. ‘udra’ actually means ‘oscillating’, ‘flowing’ (dra) etc. Ocean is samudra because waters are always oscillating and/or flowing.

Samudra actually means all the oscillations together.

All the oscillations together are divided into four regions, by which the living beings evolve. That’s how the akSara, the indestructible basic syllable comes up, based on which all the beings of Universe live.

akSara is the ‘atom’. Atom is the basic akSara on which Universe subsists.

As we have been seeing in this sloka, the sloka is about evolution of atoms from protons, nuetrons and electrons.

Sloka 43

zakamayaM dhUmam ÀrÀd apazyaM viSuvatÀ parae nÀ vareNa

ukSÀNam pRZnim apazanta vIrÀs tÀni dharmÀNi prathamÀny Àsan

Translation

Smoke/Mist/Vapour (dhumam) arising from excrement/last/left out  (zakamayam)  is bestowed/given.(ArAt) apazyaM, viSuvata, para are  not (not) by ‘vara’ (vareNa). The dharma is seated (Asan) first (prathamani) on those that are seen (apazanta), variously sprinkled (prznim uksanam), that cry loud/express themselves (vi-rAs).

Meaning

Smoke/Mist/Vapour arising from the last/left out  is direct/bestowed/given. apazyaM, viSuvata, para are not by exposition (not exposed). The dharma is seated first on those that are seen (apazyam) crying loud/vibrating, variously sprinkled.

Analysis

This translation is different from the way Griffith translates. But I think this is the right translation. Griffith was somehow trying to map this to some social aspect. I see this in the light of vakyapadiya.

Again this sloka talks about the three divisions of expression and the left out expression.

My analysis

rAs is crying loud or expressing loud. virA are those that express themselves loud in action or in words. They are the ‘brave’ and hence the ‘hero’.virAs is that vibrate/cry loud.

vara is that is exposed and hence circumference or environing or boon that is exposed to a seeker. na varena means that is not exposed.

rAt means that is bestowed/given. ArAt are those that are exposed.

In the last sloka we saw the Sam-udra divides into four regions. What are the four regions..?

The three regions of apazyam, visuvata and para are not exposed. Whatever that arises from the left out/excrement, zakamayam,  is direct or bestowed. This is the fourth region.

The dharma, the laws of the Universe gets seated first on those that are seen first (apazyam). visuvata means ‘in the middle’ or ‘madhyama’ as vakyapadiya says.

zakamayam is vaikhAri, visuvata is madhyama, para is para and apazyam is pazyanti in vakyapadiya.

Sloka 44

trayaH kezina RtuthÀ vi cakzate saMvatsare vapata eka eSÀm

vizvam eko abhi caSTe zacIbhir dhrÀjir ekasya dadRSe na rUpam

Translation

Three (trayaH) appear (caksate) with keza (keza) at the due time (rtutha), one (eka) is shaved off (vapata) the complete time (samvatsare). One part (eko) of universe (vizvam) is recognized (casta) by the power of speech (zacibhir). Sweep/Force (dhrAji) of the one (ekasya) is seen (dadrza) not the form (na rupam).

Meaning

Three appear with keza at the due time, one is shaved off the complete time. One part of universe is recognized by the power of speech. Sweep/Force of the one is seen not the form.

Analysis

This sloka talks again about the Universe’s expression.

My analysis

Of the four regions that was talked about the in previous sloka (para, apazyam, visuvata and zakamayam), three appear with keza and one is completely shaved off.

The one completely shaved off is para as it is without expression. It is the silence beyond the zabda.  The other three are expressed.

We saw in the previous sloka, the laws of the Universe, the dharma is first seated on the those that are seen (apazyanta).

One part of the Universe, the zakamayam (vaikhari in vakyapadiya) is recognized by the power of expressions.

One part of the Universe, visuvata, is recognized not by its form, but by its force/impulse/sweep.

Thus there are four regions of expressions of Universe.

apazyam on which the laws of universe is first seated.

Para that is completely shaved off. The silence.

zakamayam that which is direct (directly observed) and is recognized by power of expression/speech.

visuvata that which is recognized not by form, but by its force/sweep.

Sloka 45

catvAri vAk parimitA padAni tAni vidur brAhmaNa ye manISiNah

guhA trINi nihitA na igGayanti turIyAm vAco manuSyA vadanti

Translation

Fourfold (catvari) is vAk limited (parimita) with the pada/foot/shelter (padAni). Those (ye) brahmanas who are (ye)  intelligent (manisinah) know (vidur). Three (triNi) settle down (nihita) they not move (na iggayanti) becomes hidden (guha), manuSya speaks (vadanti) the one-fourth (turiyam) of the vAca.

Meaning

ManuSya speaks/talks about one-fourth of what is expressed in the Universe. Three are hidden to them. Only intelligent brahmanas know the three.

Analysis

What normal manuSya talks of is only one fourth of what is expressed in Universe. Only intelligent manusya know the hidden three.

My analysis

Of the fourfold expressions, the zakamayam, the left-out, what is visible,  is only what manuSya know. It has rupA. They can talk about that only.

The other three settle down, becomes hidden from their view. Only intelligent people know about it.

Sloka 46

indram mitraM varuNam agnim Àhur atho divyaH sa suparNo garutmÀn

ekaM sat viprÀ bahudhÀ vadanty agniM yamam mÀtarizvÀnam ÀhuH

Translation

It is said as Indra, mitra, varuna, agni and then the divine suparna garutmAn. One truth, the wise speak of many, it is said agni, yama and matarizvan.

Meaning

It is said as Indra, mitra, varuna, agni and then the divine suparna garutmAn. One truth, the wise speak of many, it is said agni, yama and matarizvan.

Analysis

What manuSya talks of as Indra, mitra, varuna, agni, divine suparna, garutman are all whatever that is expressed. The other three are hidden from manuSya and only the knowledgeable know.

This clearly says the vAk referred is about the Universe’s expression.

Summary of My Analysis

In the Universe’s Yajna, Agni is the vizpati, the ghrtapRSTha that makes the seven children of Agni visible (apazyam, pazyanti). The light and six forms of heat that becomes visible lights up the ‘oblations’ in the Yajna. This is the madhyama, which does not have a ‘rupA’ but is perceived by this force/sweep (dhrAji). The burnt-up oblations are the expressions. They are the vAma, the emissions or the left out or the ‘leaves’, the zakamayam.

Beyond them is the para, which is shaved off. The silence beyond the three regions of sabda covered by ‘hair’.

The light and six forms of heat are carried primarily by the electrons of atom, which is the akSara on which the Universe subsists. All matter and beings are made of this akSara, the atom.

The electron clouds are the pitara, the sky, the dyaus. They are subjected to weak-force field (trinabhi cakram/sudarshana cakram) and driven by azva, the electromagnetic force-field.

The nucleus also carries the seven children. It is the ‘gAva’, the mother, formed of seven vector force-fields (saptacakra) which are 3 color force-field, 1 upquark field, 1 downquark field, one weak force-field on positive quarks and 1 weak force-field on negative quarks. These seven unite together and form the nucleus which also carries the seven children of Agni.

That is thermal energy of atom is carried by electrons and nucleus.

Indra, the proton binding energy and Soma, the strong interaction, form the two-birds of the tree, of which one consumes the delicacy, which is the proton. The other is neutron which just observes.

Udra means agitations/oscillations. Sam-udra means always oscillating. Ocean is called Samudra because it is always oscillating. The oscillations are divided into four quarters. Zakamayam, viSuvata, para and apazyam.

 

apazyam on which the laws of universe is first seated.

Para that is completely shaved off. The silence.

zakamayam that which is direct (directly observed) and is recognized by power of expression/speech.

visuvata that which is recognized not by form, but by its force/sweep.

Only the knowledgeable know the four parts. What normal manuSya knows is the fourth part which is expressed. That fourth part they call Indra, agni, mitra, varuna etc, actually which are all just one part.

Thus the vAk referred to here, is the expression of the Universe as vakyapadiya talks of vAk as the expression of human beings as well as Universe.

So the model of Universe’s expressions and human expressions are same.

Summary of Analysis

Often, the sloka 1.164.45 is quoted standalone to indicate that it talks of human expression. But the entire 1.164 hymn talks of Universe’s expression.

But the most important slokas are 1.164.45 and 46.

In 45, the sloka says ‘manuSya speak of the fourth part, the three parts are hidden, intelligent of the brahmanas know that vAk is of four parts”.

In 46, the sloka says”They speak of Indra, varuna, Mitra, Agni, suparna garutman. The one sat is spoken of as agni, yama, matarisvan”.

If one looks at 45 and 46 together, it is clear that what the manuSya speak of is about Indra, agni, varuna, mitra which are the expressions of Universe.  The sloka says manuSya do not know of the three parts hidden, the fourth part which has Indra, mitra, agni, varuna is what is spoken of. Only the intelligent of them know that there are three parts hidden.

But often people quote 45 as stand-alone and claim the fourth part referred to in sloka 45 is fourth part of human expression.

To dispel any doubt, I translated from sloka 1 and in particular from Sloka 42 which makes it amply clear that the fourth part that manuSya speak of is not human speech, but the Universe’s expression.

More to come

Sabda and vAk in Upanishads

References

1. http://vedabhasya.blogspot.com/2018/01/aditya-hrdayam-part-56-fields-and.html

2.http://vedabhasya.blogspot.com/2018/02/the-stories-of-ganesha-and-karthikeya.html

3.http://vedabhasya.blogspot.com/2018/09/the-pancha-maha-yajnas.html

4. http://vedabhasya.blogspot.com/2018/09/an-analysis-of-sabda-and-vak-part-1.html

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