Bhagavad Gita: Chapter 4 (Part-2) Jnaana Karma Sanyaasa Yogah: Yoga of Renunciation of Action in Knowledge


Bhagavad Gita: Chapter 4 (Part-2)

Jnaana Karma Sanyaasa Yogah:

Yoga of Renunciation of Action in Knowledge



After describing the Knowledge sacrifice and the faculty of seeing everything as Brahman the Lord proceeds to enumerate other kinds of sacrifices (Yajnas) and extols the Knowledge sacrifice as the highest. When a seeker constantly practices the different types of Yajnas suggested in this section he gains wisdom. With the dawn of wisdom he begins to develop renunciation and perceives the identity of the atman and brahman.

Yajna in the ancient past merely meant the ritual of fire worship by kindling the flames with the offerings therein by the people. Krishna gives a new interpretation to the word Yajna to mean the conversion of human day to day activities into worship. The cycle of human activity starts with the receipt of stimuli from the world at large by the organs of perception, which turn them into reaction in mind and intellect, and which are returned as a response back into the world through the organs of action. This entire cycle has been split into twelve main activities; each of them turned into a ritual, worship, a Yajna. Those who understand this and turn their daily activities into a practice of these yajnas will free themselves from  the vasanas / desires.

This concept of viewing daily activities as a Yajna can be further explained in simpler terms. Take for instance the most common activities of eating and reading. This can be stated in the Gita language as “People offer the sense of hunger as sacrifice in the fire of food; others offer the sense of ignorance as sacrifice in the fire of the knowledge”. What does this mean? It simply means that food satisfies hunger or hunger is burnt in the Yajnakund of food or hunger is burnt by food or just hunger is satiated by consuming food. Similarly, knowledge removes ignorance or ignorance is burnt in the sacrificial fire of knowledge or ignorance is burnt (removed) by knowledge or just ignorance disappears when knowledge dawns.

By converting activities into Yajna (worship) a seeker drops his vasanas and gradually gains knowledge of the Self. The supermost of all yajnas is jnana yajna, the yajna of Wisdom. A seeker should prepare himself for the yajna through devotion, enquiry and service. With such preparation he will attract a perfect Guru to teach him the knowledge of the Self. This knowledge of the Self destroys all desires and agitations and removes forever his delusion that the world is real.

The knowledge of Self purifies the mind of all agitations and gives supreme Peace. Those devoted to Self control their senses and pursue the Self with consistency until they reach it. The ignorant, ever doubtful of the Self, lack steadiness of purpose. They will not achieve anything in this world or the next nor will they find any enduring happiness. Krishna, therefore, advises Arjuna to gain knowledge and remove all doubts and delusion and thus become established in the Supreme Self.

The Text

daivamevaapare yajnam yoginah paryupaasate

brahmaagnaavapare yajnam yajnenaivopajuhwati // 4.25 //

Some Yogis offer oblations or perform sacrifice to Devas alone (Deva-yagna); while others offer the Self as sacrifice by the Self into the fire of Brahman (Brahma Yagna).

Sri Krishna explains the mental attitude of a saint when he comes in contact with the world and functions in it. The Lord is enumerating in these verses twelve different types of Yagnas, each one apparently meaning ritualism but in fact suggesting different patterns of life wherein by the necessary adjustments in the mind we can effectively change the entire reactions of the world upon us.

Deva Yagna – Some Yogis perform sacrifice to Devas alone: According to ritualism this means invoking the grace of a specific deity and offering oblations to it in the sacred fire for gaining its blessings.  But here it means that the perfect masters (Yogis) when they move in the world do perceive objects but their understanding and experience of the perception is of such a nature that the world of objects was subservient to the five sense organs which are Devas.  When this mental attitude is entertained by the seeker, he feels detached from the sense experience and is able to have a sense of inner equanimity. It is surrendering individual consciousness to Cosmic Consciousness.

Brahma Yagna – Offering the Self as a sacrifice by the Self in the fire of Brahman: The outer world by itself is incapable of giving us sorrow or joy; but it is our attitude towards the objects and situations of the outer world that brings us such feelings. The perfect masters understand that the sense organs are mere instruments of perception and tune them to sacrifice themselves in the knowledge of the Brahman. When an individual’s organs of perception and action are to function not for satisfying his selfish needs but for the sake of serving the society at large, then although he lives in the world of objects he will not have any attachment to them.

The limiting accessories such as body, mind and intellect which are super imposed on the Self through ignorance are subordinated and the identity of the individual soul with the Supreme Soul is realized. The offering of the Self in the Brahman is to know that the Self which is associated with the limiting adjuncts is identical with the unconditioned Supreme Brahman. This is called Brahma Yagna wherein the Self is divested of Its Upadhis or limiting adjuncts so that it is recognized as the Supreme Self or Brahman.

Brahman is described in the scriptures as Consciousness, Knowledge and Bliss and as the innermost Self of all. It is devoid of all limitations imposed by time, space and causality. The individual self is in reality Brahman, but appears as the individual through association with the body, mind, intelligence and senses. To know the conditioned self as one with the unconditioned Brahman is to sacrifice the self in the fire of Brahman. This sacrifice is performed by those who have renounced all action and are devoted to the Knowledge of Brahman.

shrotraadeeneendriyaanyanye samyamaagnishu juhwati

shabdaadeen vishayaananya indriyaagnishu juhwati  // 4.26 //

Some again offer hearing and other senses as sacrifice in the fire of restraint; others offer sound and other objects of the senses as sacrifice in the fire of the senses.

To offer hearing and other senses in the fire of restraint: Some masters live constantly offering the senses into the fire of self-control so that the senses, of their own accord, get burnt up giving them inner joy. The more we satisfy the sense organs, the more they demand and this process goes on endlessly. Hence self-control of the sense organs is the only way to tame them for experiencing inner peace. This is the path of self control which is also an act of Yagna. Every form of self control, where we surrender the egocentric enjoyment for the higher delight, where we give up lower impulses, is said to be a sacrifice.

To offer sound and other objects of sense in the fire of the senses : Others direct their senses towards pure and unforbidden objects of the senses and in so doing regard themselves as performing acts of sacrifice. Under this method the senses are made the best use of for the adoration of the Almighty.  In the fire of the senses, sense objects are offered as oblation. The sensual is transformed into spiritual.

Two diametrically opposite types of Yagnas are mentioned here. One makes the senses ineffective and the other makes the senses super-effective. The method of self control is negative (which is given to the few) while sense-sublimation is positive (which is given to the aspiring many); but both achieve the same objective i.e. purification of the mind.

sarvaaneendriya karmaani praanakarmaani chaapare

aatmasamyamayogaagnau juhwati jnaanadeepite  // 4.27 //

Others again sacrifice all the functions of the senses and the functions of the breath (vital energy) in the fire of the Yoga of self-restraint kindled by knowledge.

Control of the ego by better understanding of the Divine behind it is called atma-samyama-yoga i.e. the Yoga of self-restraint. All the activities of sense organs and the organs of action as well as the objects of the senses together with the functions of the prana are offered into the knowledge-kindled fire of right understanding i.e. meditation which is one-pointed discriminative wisdom. The idea conveyed here is that by stopping all activities, the masters concentrate the mind on the Self.

dravyayajnaas tapoyajnaa yogayajnaastathaa’pare

swaadhyaaya jnaanayajnaashcha yatayah samshitavrataah  // 4.28 //

Others again offer wealth, austerity and Yoga as sacrifice, while the ascetics of self-restraint and rigid vows offer study of scriptures and knowledge as sacrifice.

Dravya Yagna: Charity and distribution of honestly acquired wealth in a spirit of devotion in the service of the community is called Dravya yagna. Wealth includes love, kindness, sympathy and affection also.

Tapo Yagna: Offering of a life of austerity to The Lord in a spirit of dedication so that the seeker may attain a little self-control.

Yoga Yagna: Yoga is an attempt to grow from the lower in us to the higher standard of divine living; it comprises such practices as breath-control and the withdrawal of the mind from the objects of the world.

Swadhyaya Yagna: This means study and understanding of the scriptures without which no progress in spiritual practices is possible. It also implies introspection.

Jnana Yagna: It is that activity in man by which he renounces all his ignorance into the fire of knowledge kindled by him in him. This has two aspects – negation of the false and assertion of the real nature of the Self. These two activities are undertaken during the seeker’s meditation.

All these five methods of self-development can be practiced only by him who is sincere and consistent in his practices.

apaane juhwati praanam praane’paanam tathaa’pare

praanaapaana gatee ruddhwaa praanaayaamaparaayanaah  // 4.29 //

Others offer as sacrifice the out-going breath in the in-coming and the in-coming in the out-going, restraining the courses of the out-going and in-coming breaths, solely absorbed in the restraint of breath.

Sri Krishna explains here Pranayama as another technique for self-control. Pranayama consists of three processes viz.

  • Puraka       :   process of filling in the breath

  • Rechaka    :   process of blowing out the breath

  • Kumbhaka :   process of holding the breath for some time.

Puraka and Rechaka are alternated by an interval of Kumbhaka. This process of Puraka-Kumbhaka-Rechaka-Kumbhaka-Puraka when practiced in the prescribed manner becomes the method of Pranayama.  Pranayama is referred to here as a Yagna where the practitioner offers all the five subsidiary Pranas into the main Prana. Prana does not merely mean breath. It indicates the various manifested activities of life in a living body.

Generally five different Pranas are enumerated corresponding to different functions in every living body viz.

  • function of perception – prana

  • function of excretion – apana

  • function of digestion and assimilation – samana

  • circulatory system which distributes food to all parts of the body  – vyana and

  • capacity of a living creature to improve himself in his mental outlook and intellectual life – udana.

These activities of life are brought under the perfect control of the individual through the process of Pranayama so that a seeker can gain capacity to withdraw completely all his perceptions of the outer world for gaining the knowledge of the Self.

apare niyataahaaraah praanaan praaneshu juhwati

sarve’pyete yajnavido yajnakshapita kalmashaah  // 4.30 //

Others, having their food regulated, offer the vital forces in the vital forces. All of them are knowers of the sacrifice, whose sins are destroyed by sacrifice.

In the series of techniques enumerated by Sri Krishna this is the last method. There are some, who through systematic regulation of their diet, come to gain complete mastery over themselves.

Those, who know the art of living these techniques, weaken the functions of the organs of action and thereby control their passions and appetites leading to purification of the mind and destruction of sins for achieving the goal of Self-knowledge.

In the above mentioned twelve different types of Yagna techniques self-effort is a common factor.  The yajnas are only the means to enable the mind-intellect equipment to adjust itself better for meditation.  Meditation is the only path through which the ego withdraws from false evaluation of itself for achieving spiritual growth.

yajnashishtaamritabhujo yaanti brahma sanaatanam

naayam loko’styayajnasya kuto’nyah kurusattama  // 4.31 //

The eaters of the nectar – the remnant of the sacrifice – go to the Eternal Brahman.  This world is not for the non-performer of the sacrifice; how then the other world, O Best of the Kurus ?

`Eating the nectar – the remnant of the sacrifice’ means the result of the above mentioned twelve types of Yagnas. The result of performing any one of the above Yagnas is a greater amount of self-control and the consequent inner integration of the individual personality for the purpose of intense meditation. Such an integrated person will have greater inner poise in his meditations through which he comes to experience the Infinite and the Eternal indicated by the term `Brahman’.

Self-development and inner growth cannot be had without sincere self-effort. Therefore, Sri Krishna exclaims how one could hope to achieve the highest without sincere effort when even in this world nothing great can be obtained without selfless and dedicated activity.

evam bahuvidhaa yajnaa vitataa brahmano mukhe

karmajaan viddhi taan sarvaan evam jnaatwaa vimokshyase  // 4.32 //

Thus innumerable sacrifices lie spread out before Brahman – literally at the mouth or face of Brahman – Know them all as born of action and thus knowing, you shall be liberated.

When twelve different Yagnas differing from one another have been described a doubt arises as to whether these different paths lead to the same goal or produce different effects.  It is clarified here that all of them lead to the same goal – innumerable sacrifices lie spread out before Brahman.

Another doubt as to the origin of the theory of Yagnas is clarified by interpreting the same line of the verse to mean the various Yagnas lie strewn about at the door of the Vedas giving authenticity to the idea .

It is also urged that the paths prescribed are to be achieved through self effort and hence the inevitability of right action accomplished through the activities of the body, speech and mind.

These activities cannot be attributed to the Self as the Self is actionless. Thus if one realizes that these are not my (Self) actions and I (Self) am actionless and detached he will be freed from the worldly bondage.

As compared with these sacrifices which are the means to attain inner integration, knowledge (considered as a sacrifice) is being extolled in the next verse.


shreyan dravyamayaadyajnaaj jnaanayajnah parantapa

sarvam karmaakhilam paartha jnaane parisamaapyate  // 4.33 //

Superior is the knowledge-sacrifice to all material sacrifices, O Parantapa.  All actions in their entirety, O Partha, culminate in wisdom.

Sri Krishna explains that Gnana Yagna, the offering of our ignorance into the Fire of Knowledge – acquired and experienced- is the noblest of all the activities. Compared with the formalistic ritualism with material offerings (Dravya Yagna), Gnana Yagna – destroying the misunderstanding in the fire of right understanding – is superior because sacrifices with material objects produce only material results while the Knowledge of the Self, Brahman, ends desire, the source of all activity and therefore all actions get themselves fulfilled. Hence Sri Krishna says `all actions in their entirety culminate in Knowledge’. The goal is the life giving wisdom, which gives us freedom of action and liberation from the bondage of work.


tadviddhi pranipaatena pariprashnena sevayaa

upadekshyanti te jnaanam jnaaninas tattwadarshinah  // 4.34 //

Learn it by prostration, by inquiry and by service. The wise who have realized the Truth will teach you in that Knowledge.

The method of gaining the Knowledge by which all actions get exhausted is told here.  The verse explains the qualities of a teacher who alone can give guidance on the Path of Knowledge. It also prescribes the mental attitude and intellectual approach that a student should possess for having an effective and rewarding Guru-Sishya relationship.

The student acquires knowledge of the Self by:

  • Prostration:  It is not only the show of physical surrender by prostration before the Master by the student but an intellectual attitude of humility, reverence and obedience when he approaches the teacher for receiving instructions. The student should exhibit readiness to understand, grasp and follow the Master’s instructions.

  • Inquiry: The student should be ever ready to raise doubts about bondage and liberation and about knowledge and ignorance etc. and have them clarified from the Teacher within the limits of devotion and respect. Discussions between the teacher and the taught bring forth the best from the teacher which gets transferred to the student.

  • Service: Service does not imply any physical service or offering of material objects but it means the attunement of the student to the principles of life advised to him by the Master.

The qualifications of a fully useful teacher are:

  • perfect knowledge of the Scriptures and

  • a subjective experience of the Infinite Reality.

Sri Krishna means to say that mere theoretical knowledge, however perfect, does not qualify a person to be a Guru.  The Truth or Brahman must be realized before one can claim that most elevated position. That knowledge alone which is imparted by those who have full personal enlightenment can prove effective and not any other because he who has no subjective experience of what is taught cannot understand the inner meaning of the scriptures just as a spoon cannot have any idea of the soup. This verse makes out that in spiritual life faith comes first, then knowledge and then experience.


yajjnaatwaa na punarmoham evam yaasyasi paandava

yena bhootaanyasheshena drakshyasyaatmanyatho mayi  // 4.35 //

Knowing that, O Pandava, you will not again get deluded like this: and by that you will see all beings in your own Self and also in Me.

Sri Krishna declares that after gaining the Knowledge of Brahman (referred to in the previous verse, to be learnt from the Guru) one will be able to recognize the entire creation, constituted of the world of objects, emotions and ideas, as nothing but the Self which is none other than `Me’, The Lord, The Paramatman, just as having recognized the ocean, all the waves are recognized as nothing but the ocean itself. The Self and the Lord are identical. All beings too are identical with the immortal Self; through ignorance they appear as separate.

Meaning thereby, that having received the true knowledge from a teacher one will realize the identity of the individual Self and God and he will not be subject to any confusion again like Arjuna now. Here the confusion of Arjuna refers to his despondency about killing of his kith and kin assembled on the battlefield.

api chedasi paapebhyah sarvebhyah paapakrittamah

sarvam jnaanaplavenaiva vrijinam santarishyasi  // 36 //

Even if you are the most sinful of all sinners, yet you shall verily cross all sins by the raft of Knowledge.

Gita, being a scripture for living, says here that even if one is the most sinful among the entire sinful, one can attain salvation and cross the world of imperfections through the Knowledge of the Self.

Sin is an act of ego forgetting its own divine nature. It is an act indulged in by man in his delusion catering to his baser instincts with the hope of achieving bliss. To rediscover that our ego is nothing other than the Self in us and to live thereafter as the Self of all is called true wisdom – Jnana.  Having thus realized one’s own true nature, the material objects do not have any attraction to such an individual.


yathaidhaamsi samiddho’gnir bhasmasaat kurute’rjuna

jnaanaagnih sarvakarmaani bhasmasaat kurute tathaa  // 4.37 //

As the blazing fire reduces pieces of wood to ashes, O Arjuna, so does the Fire of Knowledge reduces all actions to ashes.

As the fuel pieces, irrespective of their quality, shape, size etc., will be reduced to one homogeneous mass of ash in the Yagna fire, all Karmas, good, bad or indifferent, get burnt up in the Fire of Knowledge and will become something different from what they were in their cause and effect condition.  When the Knowledge of the Self dawns, all actions and their results cannot bring man into this world again for the enjoyment of fruits of his actions. This is reducing actions to ashes. When there is full enlightenment i.e. no idea of agency or doership and no desire for the fruits of actions, then action is no action at all as it loses all its potency.

Actions leave reactions in the form of residual impressions which mature at different periods of time depending upon the quality and intensity of the action. There are three kinds of Karmas or actions or fructification of past actions Viz.

  • Prarabhdha – so much of the past actions that have given rise to the present birth (operative).

  • Sanchita – the balance of past actions that will give rise to future births (not yet operative)

  • Agami – the actions done in the present life (to be operative in the future).

The Fire of Knowledge cannot bring about the results of all actions except the Prarabdha which have already started producing effects.

na hi jnaanena sadrisham pavitram iha vidyate

tat swayam yogasamsiddhah kaalenaatmani vindati  // 4.38 //

Certainly, there is no purifier in this world like Knowledge.  A man who has become perfect in yoga finds it within himself in course of time.

There exists no purifier equal to knowledge of the Self.  He who has attained perfection by the constant practice of Karma Yoga and Meditation will find knowledge of the Self in himself after some time. The surest means of acquiring this knowledge or wisdom is taught in the next verse.


shraddhaavaan labhate jnaanam tatparah samyatendriyah

jnaanam labdhvaa paraam shaantim achirenaadhigacchati  // 4.39 //

The man who is full of faith, who is devoted to it and who has subdued all the senses, obtains this Knowledge ; and having obtained Knowledge he goes at once to the Supreme Peace.

The three qualities that are necessary for an individual to be assured of the Knowledge Divine are enumerated here. Faith, devotion and self-control are the three imperative necessities to be acquired before one hopes to evolve to a diviner stature.

Faith (Sraddha): This is not blind belief or unquestioned acceptance of any declaration said to be divine.  Faith indicates that by which an individual understands readily the exact import of the scriptural text as well as the words of advice of the teacher.

Devotion (Tatparah):  The seeker must give his undivided attention to the path of self-development chosen by him and must on all occasions maintain in his mind a continuous consciousness of the Divine.

Self-control (Samyatendriyah): It is the sense organs that cause mental agitations and come in the way of maintaining oneself quietly in the higher values of life. Therefore, a seeker should learn to live in steady and constant sense-control.

The seeker who follows the above agenda of life reaches the state of Knowledge having attained which he soon reaches the Supreme Peace or the Supreme Joy, the goal of life. All activities in this world are undertaken to achieve better happiness or joy. So the goal of life is absolute happiness where all strife ends, all desires fulfilled and agitations exhausted. Sri Krishna indicates here that such a state of Supreme Peace is attained by acquiring the Divine Knowledge.

ajnashchaashraddhaadhaanashcha samshayaatmaa vinashyati

naayam loko’sti na paro na sukham samshayaatmanah  // 4.40 //

The ignorant, the faithless, the doubting self goes to destruction; there is neither this world nor the other nor happiness for the doubting soul.

In the previous verse it was said that those who had faith and knowledge would soon reach the Supreme Peace.  Sri Krishna repeats the same idea through a negative statement in this verse. Those who do not have these qualities will get themselves ultimately destroyed and completely ruined.  He who has no Knowledge of the Self (ignorant), who has no faith in his own self, in the scriptures and in the teachings of his Guru (faithless) and who is of a doubting disposition because of which fails to enjoy this world on account of his suspicion about the people and things around him and who has innumerable doubts as regards the other world will not find any joy anywhere – neither here nor in the hereafter.

yogasannyasta karmaanam jnaanasamchhinnasamshayam

aatmavantam na karmaani nibadhnanti dhananjaya  // 4.41 //

Actions do not bind the one, who has renounced actions through Yoga, whose doubts have been fully dispelled by Knowledge and who is poised in the Self, O Dhananjaya.

This verse is the summary of all the main secrets of life explained in this Chapter. It is only egoistic activities, motivated by egocentric desires that leave gross impressions in the inner personalities of men and bind them to reap their reactions.  When an individual learns to renounce his attachments to the fruits of his actions, righteous or unrighteous, through Yoga and yet works on in perfect detachment and when all his doubts about the goal of life have been removed through Self-Knowledge, the ego comes to realize that it is none other than Atman, the Self.  When such a person works, his actions do not bind him. The mutual relationship of true work, wisdom and self-discipline is brought out here.

Tasmaad ajnaanasambhootam hritstham jnaanaasinaatmanah

chhittwainam samshayam yogamaatishthottishtha bhaarata  // 4.42 //

Therefore, with the sword of Knowledge (of the he Self) cut asunder the doubt about the Self born of ignorance, residing in your heart and take refuge in Yoga, arise O Bharata!

Sri Krishna advises Arjuna in this last verse of the Chapter to perform action with the help of knowledge and concentration. The knowledge referred to here is the knowledge by which one discriminates between the body and the Self and which consequently destroys grief and delusion.

The doubt in his heart whether it is better to fight or abstain is the product of ignorance. It will be destroyed by wisdom. Then he will know what is right for him to do.  It is a call to every seeker to get up and act well in the spirit of Yagna and gain inner purity, so that he can experience the Supreme Peace which is the final goal of evolution.

om tat sat iti srimad bhagavadgeetaasu upanishatsu brahma vidyaayaam yogashaastre sri krishnaarjuna samvaade jnaana karma sanyaasa yogo naama chaturtho’dhyaayah

Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita, the science of the Eternal, the scripture of Yoga, the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna, ends the  fourth discourse entitled The Yoga of Renunciation of Action in Knowledge

Concepts and Issues

Sri Krishna details various forms of sacrifices all of which requires action of body, mind and intellect with the expectation of the fruit. But He emphasizes that knowledge-sacrifice is far superior to other sacrifices done with material objects. The Lord extols spiritual wisdom and tells Arjuna that this knowledge can be obtained through sincerity, purity of heart, service to God-realized Guru with devotion, prolonged practice of Karma Yoga and sense-control.

The Real Knowledge is the awareness of the Self or Pure Consciousness within.  This Pure Consciousness is experienced by the seeker only after a protracted period of practice in deep meditation.

For this one must have immense faith in God, belief in the preceptor, patience and devotion accompanied with a withdrawal of the senses from the objects of the world. Then alone one can have supreme peace.

The ignorant one, due to lack of these qualifications, entertains doubts in himself as well as in others and suffers here as well as hereafter.  But nothing in the world can bind him who works with this understanding of Knowledge.

Live as the Gita Teaches You to Live

It is only egoistic activities, motivated by egocentric desires that leave gross impressions in the inner personalities of men and bind them to reap their reactions.  When an individual learns to renounce his attachments to the fruits of his actions through Yoga and works in perfect detachment and when all his doubts about the goal of life have been removed through Self-Knowledge, the ego comes to realize that it is none other than Atman, the Self.  When such a person works, his actions do not bind him. Every form of self-control, where we surrender the egoistic enjoyment for the higher delight, where we give up lower impulses, is said to be a sacrifice.  The mutual relationship of true work, wisdom and self-discipline is the key note of this Chapter. The goal is the life-giving wisdom, which gives us freedom of action and liberation from the bondage of work. It is the goal which everybody should attempt to reach.

Points to Ponder

Explain the different kinds of sacrifices and their ultimate aim.

How is the `knowledge sacrifice’ superior to the sacrifices for expected results?

Who is the best person fit to receive this `Knowledge’ and how does he receive it?

Write short notes on

Action, Inaction and Forbidden Action

Action in Inaction, Inaction in Action

A person of doubting disposition

Performing actions with knowledge

Result of Knowledge

Obstacles to attain knowledge

Next time we shall take up Chapter 5

Harih Om


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