During the Cosmic inflation epoch, the dark energy scalar field expanded, creating ‘space’ with vacuum inside it. Visualize it as the dark energy expanding suddenly on all sides leaving out an empty space in-between.
As the dark energy scalar field expanded (1) on all sides during cosmic inflation epoch, leaving space or creating vacuum in between, this like a ‘work done’ on the field. Whenever there is a ‘Work done’, there is a potential energy created. The potential energy created is the ‘inflation potential’..
The inflation potential (dakSa) interacting with force-fields (panchajani) creates the particles. The kinetic energy of the particles of Universe, brings Universe to existence is called ‘Sati’.
These particles were propagating in the maximum speeds of light. Hence Universe is said to be filled with radiation at this point of time. When Universe is filled with radiation, dark energy scalar field does not expand. The ‘havis’ is not given to Shiva.
All energy flows into the force-fields, they get heated up and the particles become Quark Gluon Plasma. This is the dakSa Yajna and burning of Sati (matter particles) in the dakSa Yajna. This is called Re-heating.
I described the Sons of dakSa (haryazavas and savalazvas) and daughters of dakSa through prasUti (2).
The haryazavas and savalazvas are energies of strong and electro-weak force-field caused by dakSa, inflation potential. The daughters of dakSa through prasUti are those properties of force-fields brought out (pra-sUti) by dakSa.
Before I describe the daughters of dakSa through aSikni, let’s see who the ‘maruts’ are..
Rudras – The Eleven force-fields
In Standard Model, we can find ten force-fields. These ten force-fields are the ‘Rudra’.
1. Unified Electro-weak-strong force-field that manifests in the early Universe
2. Electro-weak force-field
3. Strong force field
4. Higgs field
5. The field in which Cold Dark Matter manifests
6. Weak force field
7. Electromagnetic field
8. The field in which different types of Quarks manifest
9. The field in which different types of electrons manifest
10. The field in which Neutrinos manifest
In the quintessence model, there is a eleventh force-field, which is the dark energy scalar field.
11. The dark energy scalar field
This scalar field is called the ‘At-manas’ and the energy that it adds/gives to other force-fields is called the ‘Shiva’. Thus Atmansa, the dark energy scalar field pervades all the force-fields and vacuum energy. In that way Atmanas binds all manifestations together.
These ten force-fields produce their ‘putrA’ or ‘offsprings’. This putrA or offsprings due to the reception of this ‘lifting up’ energy (‘Ananda’). This is explained here (3)
Maruts – The quantized energy levels
The inflation potential (dakSa) adds up energy (shiva) in the force-fields, the rudras. The energy distribution in these force-fields is probabilistic in nature and a ‘function’ over time and space in the force-fields. ‘Kriya’ means ‘action’ over time or any ‘function’ that varies with time. Hence Kriya is said to be daughter of dakSa (2).
But these energy distributions exist in quantized form, in the sense the energy distribution exists in several ‘discrete’ energy levels. This is called quantization. The quantized energy levels of energy distributed in force-fields are called ‘quanta’.
pRSni – The quantization of energy
This property of ‘quantized’ energy distribution in force-fields is called ‘pRSni’. ‘pRSni’ is translated as ‘variegated’ or ‘spotted’, as quantization makes the energy distribution to exist in ‘spotted’ or ‘speckled’ or ‘variegated’ levels.
The quanta of these force-fields, the rudra are the ‘Ma-ruts’. Thus Ma-ruts are particle manifestations. Ma-ruts means ‘Don’t vibrate’ or ‘Dont cry’. Since these are quantized energy levels, they are said to be ‘not-oscillating/vibrating’ and called ‘ma-ruts’.
Ma-ruts are depicted as ‘Children of Rudra and pRSni’. Ma-ruts are depicted as having ‘Spikes’ because they are the discrete energy peaks of the quantized energy distribution. They are said to be associated with or being sons of Rudras/force-fields because they are the ‘quantized’ energy distribution of Rudras (force-fields).
The ‘blending/mixing’ tuSitas (Bosons)
There are two types of ‘Quanta’ or ‘Particle manifestaitons’. They are those that arise from the force-fields that have the property of tuSti (Integer spin property) and puSti (Half-integer spin property) (4).
Those that arise from tuSti are called tuSitas. The tuSitas are ‘bosons’ in modern parlance and are ‘force-carriers’. The Pusti are the ‘fermions’ with half-integer spin.
Bhagavata Purana says in 4.1.8
tuṣitā nāma te devā
In the svayambhuva manvantra (self-manifesting epoch), the ‘devas’ named ‘tuSitas’ become blended/mixed, led by mArici Rsi and guide the cosmic evolution (yajna) of combination/sets of Sura (Sura ganas).
Sura are the Quarks (4). Sura ganas are the sets of quarks (Baryons like Proton and neutron, Mesons like pions). The cosmic evolution (Yajna) leads to these baryons and mesons, when the tuSitas (integer spin particles) become blended/mixed lead by mArici Rsi.
The quantized energy distribution or quanta, the particle manifestation of ‘integer spin’ force-fields is totally blended with other particle fields (of fermions) as the tuSitas/ bosons have ‘integer spin’ property allows any number of them to occupy the same quantum state (space) and hence they get mixed/combined with other fermionic particles.
The 14 tuSitas/ Bosons / Integer Spin quanta
In total, there are 14 fundamental force-carriers or tuSitas or Bosons. They are
1. Higgs Boson – Quanta of Higgs field
2. Eight Gluons – Quanta of Strong field
3. Positive charged Weak Boson – Quanta of Weak field
4. Negative Charged Weak Boson – Quanta of Weak field
5. Neutral Weak Boson – Quanta of Weak field
6. Photon – Quanta of Electromagnetic field
7. Quanta of the Dark Energy scalar field that provides ‘energy’ to other force-fields
Of these the Higgs field and Quanta of Dark energy scalar field existed from the start. They are supposed to be in the ‘North’ or on the ‘Top’ (Uttara).
The other 12 evolved during the Cosmic evolution which is the ‘Yajna’ or ‘sacrifice’. Yajna/sacrifice is said to proceed south/downwards (dakSina), as the force-fields breakup one after another, interact and evolve the particles of the Universe. Hence other 12 are depicted as Sons of ‘Yajna’ (Sacrifice or Cosmic evolution ) and dakSina (Southwards).
Bhagavata Purana calls these twelve as Toṣa, Pratoṣa, Santoṣa, Bhadra, Śānti, Iḍaspati Idhma, Kavi (I map them to eight quantas of strong field), Vibhu, Svahna, Sudeva (three quantas of weak field) and Rocana (quantas of electromagnetic field).
These 14 tuSitas are the 14 ‘maruts’, the 14 force-carrying, quantized energy levels of different force-fields.
The 49 puStis /Fermions/ Half-integer spin quanta
There are 49 half-integer spin quanta or particles. They are
1. 3 colors of Top, Bottom, Strange, Charm, Up, Down quarks totaling 18 quarks
2. 3 colors of antiQuarks of above totaling 18 antiQuarks
3. Electron, Muon, Tau, Electron-neutrino, Muon-neutrino and Tau-neutrino (6 leptons)
4. Positron, anti-muon, anti-tau, positron-neutrino, anti-muon neutrino and anti-tau neutrino (6 anti-leptons)
5. Particles that make up the Dark matter
These 49 particles (18 quarks + 18 antiquarks + 6 leptons + 6 antileptons + particles of dark matter) are 49 ma-Ruts or quantized energy levels of fermionic force fields with half-integer spin (puSti).
Maruts as children of Diti
Diti, the wife of Kashyapa produces the daityas (5). Soon daityas lose their power. Diti wanted to produce an Indra. Then diti produces 7 babies prematurely which then becomes 49.
When Diti produces the 49 babies, they were crying. But Indra asks them not to cry (ma-rut) and hence these babies are given the name marut (ma-not, rud- cry).
Weak force decay (Diti) create fermions
Diti is the ‘destructive’ energy of Weak force-fields (5). Daityas are the energies of the ‘Weak bosons’. The weak bosons become massive and become ‘weak’ in the range they operate. But in the high energy density of early Universe, daityas, the weak bosons rule the Universe, irrespective of their mass.
Slowly as the Universe expands, the high energy density comes down. The weak force produces 7 particles which then become 49.
Thus 49 ‘quantas’ of fermionic particles come to exist in the Universe. These fermionic particles exist in terms of three quarked ‘baryons’ (Indra) of various flavors in the high energy Universe. Since the energy distribution is quantized in the force-fields (ma-rut), they interact with each other and become baryons. Hence Indra is said to have told them ‘ma-rut’ or don’t cry.
49 or 63 maruts
Summing up, maruts are ‘quanta’ of force-fields. They are 49 in number if we consider the half-integer spin (fermionic) particles. They are 63 in number, if we include the tuSitas or integer spin boson particles.
More to come..
More posts by this author:
- Daksha Yajna – Cosmic Inflation and Re-heating
- Dark Energy Scalar field – From Brhadharanyaka Upanishad
- dakSa’s sons and daughters – Part 1
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 2
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 3