During the Cosmic inflation epoch, the dark energy scalar field expanded, creating ‘space’ with vacuum inside it. Visualize it as the dark energy expanding suddenly on all sides leaving out an empty space in-between.
As the dark energy scalar field expanded (1) on all sides during cosmic inflation epoch, leaving space or creating vacuum in between, this like a ‘work done’ on the field. Whenever there is a ‘Work done’, there is a potential energy created. The potential energy created is the ‘inflation potential’..
The inflation potential (dakSa) interacting with force-fields (panchajani) creates the particles. The kinetic energy of the particles of Universe, brings Universe to existence is called ‘Sati’.
These particles were propagating in the maximum speeds of light. Hence Universe is said to be filled with radiation at this point of time. When Universe is filled with radiation, dark energy scalar field does not expand. The ‘havis’ is not given to Shiva.
All energy flows into the force-fields, they get heated up and the particles become Quark Gluon Plasma. This is the dakSa Yajna and burning of Sati (matter particles) in the dakSa Yajna. This is called Re-heating.
I described the Sons of dakSa (haryazavas and savalazvas) and daughters of dakSa through prasUti (2). The haryazavas and savalazvas are energies of strong and electro-weak force-field caused by dakSa, inflation potential.
The daughters of dakSa through prasUti are those properties of force-fields brought out (pra-sUti) by dakSa.
‘maruts’ are ‘quanta’ of energy in different force-fields.There are 49 puStis (Fermions) and 14 Tustis (Bosons) making it totally 63 maruts.
Before I describe other 60 daughters of dakSa through asikni, let’ see who the various Rishis are.
Rishi – Symmetry Breaking Events
A donkey is situated between what are, for him, two completely equivalent bundles of hay. It has no reason to choose the one located to his left over the one located to his right, and so it is not able to choose and dies of starvation.
This is symmetry or equilibrium. In case of perfect symmetry, evolution does not occur. Everything is in balance. No progress happens. If there has to be progress or evolution, then the symmetry or equilibrium has to be broken from time to time.
Rsi is said to be derived from drSi which means to see. Rsi is interpreted as one who ‘sees’ or ‘observes’. Actually Rsi means one who makes it ‘visible’. Rishi makes it ‘visible’ to others. More than ‘See-ers’ themselves, Rishis are those who make it ‘visible’ to others.
What makes something visible..? It is the breaking of Symmetry.
In a human society, those who break the existing symmetries, make new things visible, evolve the society in a new direction are called the Rsi.
Marici – Higgs field acquiring Vacuum Expectation value
Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu (Mass) says ‘Of the Maruts I am Marici”. Maruts are the ‘quanta’ of energy in forcefields (3)
Marici is the Higgs field acquiring Vacuum Expectation value or Higgs Boson as we know it manifesting at the start of Universe (4).
First and Foremost, Higgs field acquiring an expectation value causes the breaking of Electroweak symmetry which results in Weak and Electromagnetic force getting separated. The Electro-weak symmetry breaking is the ‘single’ most reason for evolution of current Universe.
Kashyapa – Electroweak symmetry breaking
Kashyapa is the son of Marici, which is electroweak symmetry breaking. EWSB is caused by Higgs field acquiring Vaccum expectation Value. Hence Kashyapa is said to be the son of Marici.
Kashyapa is the originator of all beings of the Universe. EWSB is the originator of all beings of Universe.
The story of Varuna’s Sacrifice
Varuna means energy of ground states of Quarks and gluons. It is the QCD vacuum (5). carsani are quantum fluctuations that are the property of Varuna, the ground state of quark fields. Since fluctuations are property of QCD vacuum, carsani is said to be wife of Varuna.
Carsani are often regarded as ‘people’ or ‘cultivators’. Like a seed that is buried in the ‘ground’, pierces through the land and comes up as a plant, quantum fluctuations pierce through the ground states. The property of quantum fluctuation is the carsani.
Varuna (energy of QCD vacuum) is always producing virtual pairs (mitra). Hence often it is referred to as mitra-varuna.
A part of varuna with property of carsani is sacrificed. Out of this sacrifice, the flame is Bhrgu, the Cinder is Angiras and Ash is Kavi. Varuna adopts Bhrgu, as his son. Agni adopts Angiras as his son. Brahma adopts Kavi as his son.
The above is a story of Varuna’s sacrifice and how Rishis Bhrgu, Angiras and Kavi are born.
Bhrgu – Quantum tunneling – Flame
What ‘burns’ is the Varuna, the ground state of Quarks with property of Quantum fluctuations (carsani). Th quantum fluctuations leads to a phenomena called Quantum tunneling (6). This
Quantum tunneling is the Bhrgu.
Quantum tunneling is like a ‘flame’ that moves randomly from one point to another. It is fluctuation of energy level of a particle piercing through a potential barrier. This Quantum tunneling causes the interaction of particles and results in processes such as nuclear fusion and electron capture (6).
Lakshmi – The daughter of Bhrgu – Interacting property of matter
The Quantum tunneling because it enable interaction of particles, produces ‘Lakshmi’. Lakshmi is the property of ‘interaction’ of matter. Lakshmi is used to denote ‘wealth’ because Lakshmi, the property of interaction of matter multiples it or grows it. In comparison, nArAyana is the Purusha, the non-interacting dark matter. It never grows.
Vishnu is the property of mass. It exists in the form of nArAyana, the dark matter mostly. But dark matter is non-interacting. nara+ayan is the one that resides (ayana) in mortal matter (nara). The dark matter resides in all matter forms. Hence it is called nArAyana. But we can only infer it and never observe it.
What makes Vishnu (mass) observable is Lakshmi, the property of interaction in matter. The sign of Vishnu (the mass) is Lakshmi, the property of interaction in matter. Lakshmi means ‘sign’ or ‘mark’. It is through Lakshmi, the property of interaction in matter, we observe Vishnu the mass.
At Quantum level, tunneling causes the property of interaction. This property of interaction results in processes such as nuclear fusion due to strong interaction. Nuclear fusion produces larger atomic nucleus. Hence Bhrgu (tunneling) is said to produce Lakshmi (property of interaction in matter).
At classical level, Electromagnetic Charge of particle causes interaction of matter and larger matter forms. Hence property of Charge is also called Lakshmi.
Lakshmi, the property of interaction in matter grows ‘wealth’ of matter through nuclear fusion or electromagnetic interaction.
Zukra – The son of Bhrgu – Electron capture
The Quantum tunneling produces ‘zukra’. Zukra is the process of Electron capture. Electron capture is a process in which the proton interacts with electron and becomes a neutron. This happens due to Weak force interaction with particles.
Bhrgu, the quantum tunneling causes Zukra, the electron capture by proton, which is to make these two particles proton and electron interact through weak force interaction. Zukra, the electron capture produces a neutral particle (neutron) and neutrino out of a positively charged particle( proton).
Zukra is said to be the ‘guru’ of ‘asuras’, danavas and ‘daityas’. Asuras are non-nucleons (baryons, mesons that do not become nucleus), daityas are intermediate weak force bosons (8) and danavas are electrons and neutrinos. Since Zukra, the electron capture drives the production of neutrinos non-baryons, it is called the guru of asuras and daityas.
The electron capture happens in early universe when there is a sufficient amount of energy driving the electron capture reaction. Hence zukra is said to have revived dead asuras (electrons are captured and neutrinos are produced). Due to this Zukra (electron capture) is said to have ‘mrtyu-sanjeevani’ mantra.
Angiras – Cinder – Quark Condensate formation
If Bhrgu, the Quantum tunneling is the ‘flame’ that leaps out of Varuna, the QCD vacuum causing interaction of particles in various ways, Angiras is the Quark condensate formation by non-perturbative QCD gluons(7).
This Quark condensate formation, Angiras, creates ‘mass’ (localized energy in a region of space) without Higgs field. Such matter forms with ‘mass’ can ‘vibrate’ and carry thermal energy. Thermal energy of matter are vibrations of particles with mass.
This thermal energy of particles is the ‘zra-dha’ (2). Hence zraddha is depicted as wife of Angiras. zraddha is also called ‘Su-rupa’ or the property of ‘good form’.
Thus Angiras is said to the ‘Cinder’ or ‘Charcoal’ formation in the Sacrifice of Varuna (QCD vacuum).
Angiras said to be adopted by Agni as ‘son’. Agni is the transfer of energy between force-fields. Since Quark condensate is formed by non-perturbative QCD gluons, it is the transfer of energy (Agni) between strong force and quark fields that results in the Quark condensate. Hence Angiras is said to be adopted by Agni.
The Chiral Symmetry breaking – Daughter property given by Angiras
Every particle has a particular handedness, right or left (13). This is called Chirality (13). This chirality or handedness is an ‘intrinsic’ property of particles.
Before Angiras or Quark condensate formed, the right and left handed particles were distinct particles. Any physical change (such as rotation) in them would not change their handedness and they would remain left or right handed always. This is called ‘Chiral Symmetry’.
But when Angiras manifested, that is when Quark condensate formed, this Chiral symmetry got broken.
Spontaneous Chiral Symmetry breaking (rAka and anumati)
The particles no longer retained their handedness on rotation as they formed a ‘quark condensate’. Hence they can no longer be called right or left handed as their handedness depends on their rotation. This losing of handedness is called ‘spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking’.
This is called Spontaneous Chiral symmetry breaking because the Quark condensate forms due to gluons in QCD vacuum, without any need for interactions with any other particles.
Anu-mati means nearer (anu) to a full moon (mati). A nearer to full moon has ‘handedness’.But when it becomes full moon, it loses its handedness completely. The full moon has no handedness. This transition is similar to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking which makes the chirality/handedness to be lost. rAka means full moon. Hence anumati (with handedness) and rAka (no handedness) are said to be daughters of angiras. They symbolize the property of ‘spontaneous’ chiral symmetry breaking, which is the losing of handedness.
Explicit Chiral Symmetry Breaking (Kuhu and Sinivali)
After marici manifested (Higgs field acquired vacuum expectation value), Quarks interact with Higgs field through ‘Yukawa coupling’.
This interaction with Higgs field results in particles gaining a ‘new’ handedness or ‘change’ of their existing ‘handedness’ of quarks. Everytime quarks interact with Higgs field, their handedness changes from right to left. This again means their Chiral symmetry is broken (handedness changes due to interaction).
Since this handedness change happens due to interaction with Higgs field, it is called ‘Explicit Chiral symmetry breaking’.
Kuhu is the new moon. It is when no handedness exists. Sinivali is depicted as wife of Vishnu. It is the property of interaction with Higgs field. Sinivali is also depicted as the first day after moon, when a moon is visible with some handedness. This kuhu to sinivali, which is gaining of a new handedness is similar to explicit chiral symmetry breaking which leads to gaining of new handedness.
The sons of Angira – Brhaspati the nucleosynthesis
This Quark condensate formation due to non-perturbative gluons (Angiras) leads to three sons, Utathya, Brhaspati and Samvartana.
‘Uta’thya are the formation of various types of baryons and mesons, which are the Quark condensates that are formed.
Samvarta are the destruction of these baryons and mesons, because they are charged and annihilate each other. Samvarta means dissolution. Samvarta leaves out a reside of baryons.
Brhaspati is the process of nucleo-synthesis that guides to form newer and newer elements from the residual or left out baryons after the dissolution.
Brhaspati is said to be the younger brother of Utathya because nucleo-synthesis follows the formation of baryons. Brhaspati is said to the the ‘guru’ of Indra (energy of proton) because the process of nucleo-synthesis guides the evolution of single proton hydrogen atom to multi-proton elements.
Jupiter is called Brhaspati as it is formed of the residue left out of solar nebula that formed the solar system. Nucleo-synthesis does not happen in Jupiter only because it is not massive enough to kick-start one.
Kavi – Creation of neutral particles
Kavi is said to be the ‘ash’ in the sacrifice when a part of Varuna (QCD vacuum is sacrificed).
Kavi is the formation of neutral atoms. Nuetral atoms form when protons capture the electrons and become electrically neutral.
Kavi, the production of neutral atoms happen, when Universe sufficiently cools by expansion of spacetime. Hence Kavi is said to be the son of Brahma.
Zukra, the electron capture is also called Kavi, because it produces neutral particle (neutron).
Kavi is likened to ‘ash’. If Cinder (Quark condensate) is like a charged particle that can be burnt/interact further, ash is like the neutral atoms that cannot be burnt further. The neutral atoms are relatively stable.
More to come
Agasthya, Vasishta and Matsya
More posts by this author:
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 10 (Catur Sana and Catur Yuga)
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 3
- Rsis of Vedas – Part 4
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 2
- Daksha Yajna – Cosmic Inflation and Re-heating