Rsis of the Vedas are not human beings. But they are symmetry breaking events that originated everything in the Universe (4).
The Rsis till now are described here (13) and here (14).
There are ten types of Higgs couplings to particles which are the ten prominent avatars of Vishnu These ten types of Higgs couplings defeat the weak decays, win over them and establish the ten particle types over three births/generations. This is the story of ten avatars of vishnu defeating the daityas over three births/generations (18).
The ten types of Higgs couplings are
1. Matsya – Higgs coupling to Top Quark
2. kUrma – Higgs coupling to Bottom Quark
3. varAha – Higgs coupling to Charm Quarks
4. nRsimha – Higgs coupling to Strange Quarks
5. vAmana – Higgs coupling to neutrinos that spans across three generations (oscillates)
6. parasurAma – Higgs coupling to Down Quarks
7. rAma – Higgs coupling to Up Quarks
8. BalarAma – Higgs coupling to Tau lepton
9. Krishna – Higgs coupling to Muon
10. kalki – Higgs coupling to electron
The Ocean and the Land/Earth
The QCD and QED vacuum are the ‘Oceans’ in which the fundamental particles appear. The composite particles (hadrons) are the ‘land’ or ‘earth’ that eventually form and on which the matter and biological beings evolve.
The first two avatars of Vishnu
matsya is the first Higgs coupling to Quark that appears in the ‘Ocean of QCD vacuum’. This is the ‘fish’ or the Top Quarks that arise in the QCD vacuum. Like a fish that cannot live in the land, Top Quarks cannot hadronize or ‘form’ the land. They cannot create the ‘particles’ that become the ‘land’ eventually.
kUrma is the Higgs coupling that can live in ‘Ocean’ of QCD vacuum as well as in the land of ‘massive’ particles. These are the Bottom Quarks that hadronize and form mesons and baryons, which are the ‘land’ of particles. Hence kUrma is also equated to Earth.
The Top and Bottom Quarks are the third generation quarks in the Standard Model. Top Quarks originated from the ‘Ocean’ of QCD vacuum like the ‘fish’. Bottom quarks originated from the ocean of QCD vacuum, but subsequently formed (moved to) in the land like the ‘tortoise’.
vaikuNTha – Weak field in which Vishnu resides
VaikuNTha is the ‘weak force field’. ‘Weak force’ is the ‘diti’ or cutting off force that decays/destroys the particle. Vishnu, the property of mass resides in VaikuNTHa, the weak force-field, makes it massive and hence prevents particles from decaying instantly.
As the ‘massive’ weak force decays particles, it introduces the concept of ‘time’. This is for another blog. But the slow decay because of massive weak bosons is what is allowing the ‘matter’ particles to sustain and evolve.
Jaya and Vijaya
Jaya and Vijaya are the ‘door-keepers’ of the Weak-field.
Jaya is the ‘door keeper’ that decays particles (allows interaction with weak field in such a way) that it originates new particles out of QCD vacuum.
Vijaya is the ‘door keeper’ that decays particles (allows interaction with weak field in such a way) that it originates new particles out of QED vacuum.
The puranic catur-sana story
There are four child sages, the catur-sana, who are always said to remain as children. These four sages never grow. They were first created, but did not grow or evolve. When this catur-sana, tried to visit vaikuNTha, the Jaya and Vijaya stopped them.
The catur-sana got angry. But then vishnu appears before the Catur-Sana. But if Vishnu appears before Catur-Sana, then Jaya and Vijaya are to be born in earth over several births. This is the ‘curse’ given to Jaya and Vijaya. Vishnu assures Jaya and Vijaya, he will overpower them in every birth and limits the birth to three births. In this process Vishnu takes ten prominent avatars.
So Jaya and Vijaya were born as HiranyakSa/Hiranyakasipu, Ravana/kumbhakarna, Dantavakra/ShisupAla.
The Handedness of particles and their ‘mixing’.
Every particle possess what is call ‘handedness’. It is called Chirality (19).
The fundamental particles like Quarks, Electrons and Neutrinos have ‘specific handedness’ before they couple to Higgs field. It means that they were either right or left handed particles (19). In other words, before interacting with Higgs field, the right handed and left-handed particles existed separately.
Post Higgs field coupling, the Higgs field changes the handedness of particles. It makes right-handed as left-handed and left-handed as right-handed. Depending on how often the particles couple with Higgs field, the higgs-field ‘mixes’ the handedness of particles.
So ‘massive’ particles have a ‘mix’ of handedness.
Particles with NO weak charge – Catur Sana
There are particles that do not have weak charge. Hence they won’t interact with weak force-field, which means they will never decay by weak force.
There are particles that do have weak charge. Hence they will interact with weak force-field which means they decay by weak force.
There are four particle types that do not have Weak Charge. They are
1. Right-handed quarks
2. Left-handed anti-quarks
3. Right-handed electrons
4. Left-handed anti-electrons
The above four are the catur-sana (19). They don’t decay ever by weak force as they do not have the weak charge that enables particles to interact with weak field. Hence they don’t grow or evolve or change. Hence they are depicted as ‘kid sages’.
Neutrinos are of what is called ‘majorana’ form. They are their own anti-particle as they have neutral charge. The left-handed neutrino is same as left-handed anti-neutrino and right-handed anti-neutrino is same as right-handed neutrino.
Catur Sana stopped by Jaya/Vijaya
Since these four particle types have no weak charge, they can’t interact with Weak force-field, the VaikuNTHa.
Hence Jaya and Vijaya, the weak decays to QCD and QED vacuum stops them from interacting with weak field.
It is because the catur-sana cannot interact with weak field, they remain forever young. But catur-sana want to interact with weak field (reach vaikuNTha) and merge back to where they came from. They don’t want to be remaining young always.
Vishnu blesses three births to Jaya/Vijaya
But then Vishnu, the property of mass caused by Higgs field intervenes. As Catur-Sana, these four particles interact with Higgs field (the Vishnu), their handedness changes from right to left or left to right. Once their handedness changes, they acquire weak charge and they can interact with weak field.
Thus Higgs field ‘mixes’ the handedness of particles, leading to interaction of particles with weak force and their subsequent decay (to QCD or QED vacuum).
This could have actually lead to particles of varying masses with numerous types of higgs coupling. But this is where Vishnu ‘blesses’. The mixing of handedness by Higgs field leads to Higgs coupling with matter in such a way that there are only three generations of particles.
The three births of Jaya and Vijaya
- The first birth of Weak and Electromagnetic decay (HiranyakSa/Hiranyakasipu) are defeated by Higgs coupling of particles that form Vector/Pseudo-vector mesons.
- The second birth of Weak and Electromagnetic decay (rAvana/kumbhakarNa) is defeated by Higgs coupling of particles that form scalar/pseudo-scalar mesons.
- The third birth of Weak and Electromagnetic decay (dantavakra/shishupAla) is defeated by Higgs coupling of particles that form the leptons.
The Yugas of Universe
The ten avatars and three generations of particles happen over four Yugas. The four yugas are
1. Satya Yuga (Quark epoch)
2. Treta Yuga (Hadron epoch)
3. dvapara Yuga (Lepton epoch)
4. Kali Yuga (Photon epoch)
In the Satya Yuga, the Higgs, Strong, Weak and Electromagnetic field were equally powerful. This was the early very high energy Universe in which Higgs field acquired vacuum expectation value and started interacting with particles.
In this time, all four fields are powerful due to high energy concentration in the Universe. Hence this Yuga is said to stand on ‘four legs’. In this Yuga, Top (Matsya), Bottom (Kurma), Charm (varAha), Strange (nRsimha) form. These four particles are influenced by the four force-fields equally.
The dominance of four force-fields, leads to massive quarks and quarks dominate the Universe. This is the Quark epoch of the Universe.
The Universe’s spacetime keeps expanding rapidly due to which the energy density falls down drastically. This leads to Treta Yuga.
In the Treta Yuga, the Strong, Weak and Electromagnetic field are powerful. The Higgs coupling to particles is lighter as energy density goes down. Yet the strong, weak and electromagnetic fields are powerful due to still high energy. Hence this Yuga is said to stand on three legs. In this Yuga, Neutrinos (vAmana), Up quarks (rAma), Down quarks (parasu-rAma) form.
The dominance of three force-fields, leads to hadrons and hadrons dominate the Universe. This is the hadron epoch of the Universe.
The Universe’s spacetime keeps expanding further and further due to which the strong interaction’s range gets limited due to hadronization.
In the dvApara yuga, weak and electromagnetic fields dominate. This results in leptons (Tau, muons) forming and dominating the Universe. Since weak and electromagnetic fields dominate, this yuga is said to stand on two legs. In this yuga, Tau leptons (balarAma) and Muons (Kirshna) dominate the Universe.
The dominance of two force-fields, leads to leptons and leptons dominate the Universe. This is the lepton epoch of the Universe.
The Universe’s spacetime keeps expanding further and further due to which the energy density falls down resulting in weak interaction scales also coming down drastically. This leads to electromagnetic force alone dominating the Universe. This is the Kali yuga.
In the kali yuga, electromagnetic force alone is powerful. Electrons (kalki) come to dominate the Universe. Electrons are not subjected to weak, strong forces and subjected only to electromagnetic force. It is the interaction of electrons, flow of electrons that evolve the Universal matter and biological beings. This is photon epoch out of which Universal matter evolves.
Since in this Yuga there is only one force-field dominating the Universe, it is said to stand in one leg.
The Universe will end in Kali Yuga, when electrons (rather positrons called the kalki) dominate the Universe which is known as positron decay.
More to come
More posts by this author:
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 9 (daityAs and dasvathAra)
- The 51 letters of saMskRt and Universe – shakti pIta
- maruts- Quanta of force-fields
- Rsis of Vedas – Part 4
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 3