Rsis are symmetry breaking events that originate everything in the Universe.
Marici is the Higgs field acquiring Vacuum Expectation Value. Kashyapa is the Electroweak symmetry breaking event. Bhrgu is quantum tunneling. Angiras is the appearance of massless quark condensates due to gluons. Kavi is the formation of neutral atoms (4).
Rsi Pulastya is excitation of Virtual and Real ‘mesons’ which are composite bosons. The excitation of virtual mesons is Agastya (potted in nucleus). The excitation of real mesons is Vizravas,which is streamed forth. These can be Charged Scalar, neutral Scalar, Charged Vector, neutral vector bosons which are the Gandharvas, YakSas, RakSas and Pisacas respectively. The glue-ball is the Kuvera and apsaras are the electromagnetic field between particles (5).
Rsi Vasistha is exchange of virtual gluons. Rsi Visva-mitra is the exchange of virtual photons. Rsi Agasthya is the exchange of virtual mesons (11).
Rsi Atri is the neutrino decoupling process (10) (6). SvarabhAnu is the three way oscillating neutrino that gets decoupled, due to which oscillation of protons to neutrons get stopped, a fixed proton-neutron ratio emerges, which then determines the evolution of atomic nucleus and all the matter as we see it today (7).
Chandra-atri are baryons of nucleus. Datta-atri are heavy barons that give up their forms and evolve into newer forms. Dur-vAsa are excited baryonic states that cannot reside longer in the state and return soon to original states.
Rishi Kratu are the quantum tunneling interactions of massive particles that become the ‘intelligence’. bAla-khilyas are such interactions during nucleo-synthesis process. Rishi Pulaha is the addition of kinetic and potential energy to matter.
Now let’s talk about children of Kashyapa, starting from the Adityas.
Quark Gluon Plasma – The dead egg
According to Standard Model, at the end of Cosmic inflation epoch (When spacetime expanded), Universe got filled with Quark-Gluon-plasma (QGP). The Quark Gluon Plasma is caused by ‘Reheating’. This Reheating is the dakSa Yajna in which Sati immolates herself and Universe is said to have stopped evolving.
The QGP is the ‘Dead Egg’, the mrta-anda. It has Quarks and Gluons in the form of a ‘plasma’ where quarks and gluons exist independently in a ‘de-confined’ state.
QGP is called ‘Egg’ (anda), because it is from this QGP that all the particles of Universe evolved. QGP is ‘Dead’ (mrta) because the Quarks and Gluons in it exist in a state that cannot evolve.
mArtAnda – Those that spring from dead-egg/QGP
All particles of this Universe that arose from this dead-egg or mrta-anda or the Quark-Gluon-Plasma, are called ‘mArtANDa’ or that arose from dead-egg.
So how does this ‘dead egg’ of QGP in which Quarks and Gluons are in a de-confined state, in which they cannot evolve further, lead to evolution of matter..? This happens when Higgs field acquires Vacuum Expectation Value (Rsi mArici) followed by Electroweak symmetry breaking (mArici’s son Rsi Kashyapa).
Rsi mArici leads to particles with higgs interaction. This results in the Electroweak force to get split into electromagnetic and weak force. This Electroweak symmetry breaking event, Rsi Kashyapa, leads to all particles and life coming out of the Quark-Gluon-Plasma.
This Rsi Kashyapa is said to be associated with Creative energy (Aditi), Destructive energy (diti), Independent particles (danu) etc. Each of these are visualized as ‘wife’ of Kashyapa, the electroweak symmetry breaking event.
The energies that are associated with creation of matter particles and creative functions are called Adityas.
There are eight creative energies and four creative functions making the twelve Adityas.
The Eight Aditya of RgVeda
Rgveda Mandala 10 Hymn 72 verse 8 says
aSTau putrÀso aditer ye jÀtÀs tanvas pari
devÀM upa prait saptabhiH parÀ mÀrtANDam Àsyat
saptabhiH putrair aditir upa prait pUrvyaM yugam
prajÀyai mRtyave tvat punar mÀrtÀNDam Àbharat
Eight (asTau) are the sons of Aditi (aSTau putraso aditer) which (ye) are born (jAtAs) around bodies/particle forms (tanvas pari). Matter (devAm) comes up/arises (upa prait) with seven particles (saptabhiH), off the mouth (para Asyat) arising from dead-egg (mArtANDam). With this seven sons (saptabhiH putrair) of aditi, the dead praja/particles (prajAyai mrtyave) again arise (tvat punar upa prait) from the dead-egg (mArtANDam) of the previous yugaM (purvyAm Yugam).
Eight are the sons of Aditi (aSTau putraso aditer) which are born around bodies/particle forms (ye jAtAs tanvas pari). Matter comes up/arises with seven particles, off the mouth arising from dead-egg. With this seven sons of aditi, the dead praja/particles again arise from the dead-egg of the previous yugaM.
The eight adityas or energies that born around bodies or forms or matter are
1. Mass due to Higgs Interaction in Primitive particles (Urukrama)
2. Valence Quarks in Hadron (Zatru)
3. Non-vanishing condensates in QCD Vacuum (Varuna)
4. Sea quarks (Mitra)
5. Hadrons (dhAtr)
6. Charged hadrons (vidhAtr)
7. Atomic nucleus (Savitr)
8. Atoms, elements, compounds (bhaga)
In the above eight, seven arise post the QGP formation.
The QCD vacuum/Varuna existed even before the Cosmic inflation epoch, as strong force existed as even before cosmic inflation epoch. Except the QCD vacuum other seven arise newly from the QGP. These seven are the mArtANDa.
The Twelve Adityas of Srimad Bhagavatam
Srimad Bhagavatam 6.6.38 and 39 talk about twelve Adityas.
athātaḥ śrūyatāṁ vaṁśo
yo ’diter anupūrvaśaḥ
yatra nārāyaṇo devaḥ
vivasvān aryamā pūṣā
tvaṣṭātha savitā bhagaḥ
dhātā vidhātā varuṇo
mitraḥ śatru urukramaḥ
Then (atha) now( atah) hear (sruyatam) the dynasty (vamsa) of which aditi (yah aditer) in back-order/starting from the last (anu purvazah) where (yatra) narayana deva appeared in several forms (avatarad vibhuh) with self-characteristics (sva- amzena). Vivasvan, aryaMa, puSa, tvaSTha and then savita, bhagah, dhAta, vidhAta, varuNa, mitraH, zatru, Urukrama.
Now hear about the creative energy aditi’s dynasty, in order from the last, in which Lord nArAyaNa appeared in several forms in his own characteristics. Vivasvan, Aryama, puSa, tvaSTha and then Savita, Bhagah, dhAta, vidhATa, varuNa, Mitra, Zatru and Urukrama.
nArAyAna is the one that resides in all ‘nara’. It is the property of ‘mass’. This property of mass manifested itself in the dynasty of aditi, over several forms. The order in which this property of mass manifested are
The first eight Adityas are as mentioned in the Rg veda born around bodied forms or particle forms.
1. Urukrama, the higgs field that causes three generation/step of particles
2. Zatru, the energy in Valence quarks of Hadrons
3. Mitra, the energy in sea quark pairs off QCD vacuum due to quantum fluctuations
4. varuNa, the energy in QCD vacuum (non vanishing quark and gluon condensates of this vacuum)
5. vidhAta, the energy in charged hadrons
6. dhAta, the energy in hadrons
7. bhaga, energy in neutral atom with electron to share with other atoms
8. Savitr, energy in atomic nucleus with multiple protons and neutrons
The next four Adityas are functions that Aditi, the Creative energy performs. They are
1. Creation of Quarks (Tvasta)
2. Creation of Chiral Condensate (Pusan)
3. Creation of Hadrons (Aryama)
4. Nucleo-synthesis (Vivasvan)
The four creative functional Adityas
Tvasta – The Creator of Quarks
Tvasta is the production of fractionally charged quarks from gluon energy. Since gluon energy is all about strong interaction, the soma, tvasta, the producer of quarks, is said to ‘house’ the Soma, the strong interaction.
The quarks produced by Tvasta are massive due to Higgs interaction (Uru-krama) and Charged as they interact with Electromagnetic field. Some of these quarks serve as the vehicle of the creative energy that identifies a particle or give identity to a particle. Such quarks are called Valence quarks.
These Valence quark serve as the ‘vehicle’ or ‘chariot’ for the Aditya or the creative energy. Hence Tvasta is known as ratha-kAra, or vehicle-maker.
Tvasta produces charged quarks that form part of several three valence quarked baryons and two valence quarked mesons. The three valence quarks that Tvasta produces is called ‘tri-siras’ or three-headed.
Indra, the creating energy of Proton drinks Soma or uses Strong Interaction to slay/bind tri-siras (three valence quarks), into a single charged particle called Proton. This results in Apa, the Electromagnetic interaction, as the valence quarks combine and produce a positively charged particle.
Sometimes Tvasta is said to be father of Indra because quark particles that Tvasta produces become part of Proton.
Tvastar sometimes is said to be Shukracharya’s son, as Radioactive decay (Zukra) produces stream of quarks which are the alpha particles. Tvastr is recognized as an Aditya, as it is a creative function that produces Massive, valence quarks from gluon energy, post electroweak symmetry breaking event.
Tvasta at times is said to be simply producer of fractional ‘charges’. So Tvasta becomes father of Yama and Yami. Since charges are produced by Vivasvan/Surya, the nucleosynthesis also, Vivasvan/Surya is also the father of Yama and Yami.
Since TvaSta produces the fractionally charged quarks, he is also the producer of electromagnetic force between particles. vRtra is the electromagnetic force between particles. It is between the quarks that make the proton as well as between proton and electron. Indra, the energy that creates the proton overcomes the electromagnetic forces between quarks to create the proton and also attracts the electron, establishing Apa, electromagnetic interaction between proton and electron.
Pusan – The creator of Quark/Chiral condensate
Pusan means ‘nourisher’.
Pusan creates the quark condensates out of the QCD Vacuum (Varuna).
Such Quark condensates exist even before Electroweak symmetry breaking event (Kashyapa Rsi) and even before Cosmic Inflation epoch. But during Reheating or dakSa Yajna, the matter in the Universe becomes a Quark-Gluon-Plasma or dead egg.
So Pusan, the creator of Quark condensates is said to have lost his ability to eat particles (lost the teeth) and eats only fluid items (called Karambha) as Universe is filled with QGP.
But post Higgs field acquiring vacuum expectation value and subsequent Electroweak symmetry breaking event, puSan the nourisher manifests as Chiral condensate around the baryons and mesons.
Thus puSan is born again as Aditya as Chiral condensate. The condensate keeps producing sea quarks and annihilating them. Sea quarks are pair produced quark particles that arise out of the gluon field.
Since Pusan, the condensates never manifest on their own as an independent particle they are said to be driven by ‘aja’ which could be goats or could mean unborn.
Pusan is also called ‘kavi’, as the quarks before the Electroweak symmetry breaking and Chiral condensate in the hadrons are neutral and do not interact with electromagnetic field. Kavi are those that generates neutral particles.
Aryama – Creator of charged and neutral hadrons – our Pitrs
Yama and Yami are charge and charge conjugate particles. ar’yama’ is the creation of charged and neutral hadrons like Protons and neutrons.
Pitrs are those that desire (iccha) offsprings (praja). The first to desire praja are the protons that attracted electrons and formed neutral atoms.
The biological beings like us originate from organic compounds. The organic compounds originate from simple atomic elements. The first atomic element to originate is Hydrogen atom. It is combination of a proton and electron. It is also called protium.
Aryama is the creator of this first Pitr, the proton that desired the electron, and hence the chief of all Pitrs.
Vivasvan – Creator of newer elements in Stellar nucleosynthesis
Vivas mean driving away, shining etc. Vivasvat is the process of stellar nucleosynthesis that creates larger and larger atomic elements.
Vivasvan is the creator of larger and larger atomic nucleus. Vivasvan the stellar nucleosynthesis process uses Saranyu, the nuclear binding energy to bind the atomic nucleus. This Saranyu, the nuclear binding energy is depicted as daughter of Tvasta, the creator of valence quarks from gluon energy.
This Saranyu, the nuclear binding energy that goes into binding of the nucleus, goes missing during the nuclear formation process, which is called ‘mass defect’. The binding energy of the resultant atomic nucleus is a ‘shadow’ (chAya) of original energy used to bind the nucleus.
Apart from the resultant atomic nucleus, this also produces positive and negative charged particles (Yama and Yami). Thus Yama and Yami are said to be born to Vivasvan and Saranyu.
Later some of the charged particles annihilate and produce Gamma rays or electromagnetic radiation, which is called ‘Sani’.
Saranyu is the energy went missing during nuclear fusion. The charged particles that are released at the time of nuclear fusion, which are the Yama and Yami are said to be children of this Saranyu.
The nuclear binding energy present in the nucleus is the ‘ChAya’. The gamma rays produced later (or slowly) by the annihilation of charged particles are said to be the son of chAya and called sani.
If Yama and Yami are the charge and charge conjugate, Sani is the electromagnetic radiation that is beyond light (ultra-violet, xrays, gamma rays) and is harmful.
The eight Adityas around matter
Urukrama – ‘mass’ through Higgs interaction of primitive particles
The property of ‘mass’ is caused by interaction of ‘Higgs field’ with Quarks, Electrons and Neutrinos. The Higgs field impedes the motion of particles and creates an energy density in a region of space. This is what we perceive as ‘mass’ of a particle.
This property of mass is called Vishnu and is present in the pancha-jana (Quarks, Anti-quarks, electrons, anti-electrons, neutrinos) and their flavors.
This is the first Aditya (or twelfth Aditya in the anupUrva/reverse order) that gives rise to ‘tanva’ or ‘body’ or ‘matter forms’.
The Higgs field interaction of Quarks, Electrons and Neutrinos spans across (or causes) three generations of particles.
The first generation is the most massive generation of Quarks, Electrons and Neutrinos. They form more complex matter forms, but decay faster. The second generation is less massive, form longer surviving matter forms in general. The third generation is least massive, but form most stable matter forms.
The three generations are the three ‘Kramas’ or steps that the Higgs interaction takes in every particle type. Hence Vishnu is known as Tri-vikrama.
Vishnu is called ‘Uru-Krama’, as the steps of these interactions are ‘wide’ or ‘large’. They vary from very small/negligible mass of neutrinos to large mass of Top Quarks.
Zatru – Energy in Valence Quarks of Hadrons
Tvasta produces valence quarks from gluon energy. These valence quark particles are depicted as enemy of Adityas or Indra as these quarks are bound/slayed by the energy that creates particles.
For eg. Indra (energy creating the proton) slays the tri-siras, the three headed valence quarks of baryons, creating Apa, the electromagnetic interaction as the bounded particle produces an Unit positive charge.
Hence these valence quarks are depicted as Zatru, the enemy.
Mitra – Energy in Pair production off QCD vacuum
A quantum fluctuation is the temporary appearance of energetic particles out of empty space, as allowed by the Uncertainty Principle. For example, a particle pair can pop out of the vacuum during a very short time interval.
The energy of the QCD Vacuum (Varuna) along with threshold for pair production causes pair production of particles. These particle pairs are called Sea-quarks.
The energy of the QCD Vacuum is called Varuna. The energy associated with Quantum fluctuation that leads to pair production is called Mitra. That’s why ‘Mitra’ is also used to denote ‘friendship’.
Mitra-Varuna becomes a dvandva compound as their existence together is meaningful. mitra (pair production) happens on top of Varuna (energy of quantum vacuum).
Just Varuna alone cannot evolve the world. It needs Mitra. Thus Varuna is like the Kshatriya, the energy provider. Mitra is the Brahmana, the entropy provider, as it provided the quark-antiquark pairs.
Varuna – Energy in Non-vanishing condensates in QCD vacuum
Varuna is the energy of QCD vacuum. Varuna is depicted as residing in ‘Ocean’ or ‘Sea’. Even the Standard Model defines energy of QCD Vacuum as Ocean of gluon and quark condensates.
The Quantum Chromodynamic Vacuum or QCD vacuum is characterized by non-vanishing condensates such as gluon and quark condensates. The presence of these condensates characterizes the confined phase of quark matter.
Hence this vacuum is not really empty, but with a structure that encompasses several energy states. Hence it can be visualized as an ‘Ocean’. There are infinitely many states with minimal amount of energy or ground states, between which the QCD fields can change. There also potential barriers between them, in which quantum tunneling occurs.
This quantum tunneling is the Bhrgu, son of Varuna.
dhAtr – Energy in Hadrons (eg. protons and neutrons)
dhAtr means that holds. dhAtr are the hadrons (like protons and neutrons) that hold the atomic nucleus.
These hadrons like protons and neutrons hold the nucleus together. These hadrons are caused by Chiral symmetry breaking process.
As the space keeps expanding, symmetry breaking events occur. These symmetry breaking events are the ‘Rishis’. Symmetry breaking events that occur due to continued expansion of space are called ‘Manasa-putras’.
One of the manasaputras that manifested is Angiras. Angiras is the quark condensates that formed due to non-perturbative action of the gluon field. The Angiras results in chiral symmetry breaking spontaneously and then also explicitly. The chiral symmetry breaking results in the formation of hadrons, which are newer type of matter forms in that Universe. The spontaneous and explicit chiral symmetry breaking events are the daughters of Angiras (kuku, sinivali, anumati, raka)
Since dhAtr, the hadrons are caused due to chiral symmetry breaking, dhAtr is said to marry these four daughters of Angiras that symbolize chiral symmetry breaking (kuku, sinivali, anumati, raka).
Since protons and neutrons (dhAtr) tunnel across the potential barriers, dhAtr are also said to be sons of Bhrgu, the quantum tunneling event.
vidhAtR – Energy in Charged hadrons (Eg. Proton)
VidhAtr means ‘very much the holder’. These are charged hadrons like Proton that hold the nucleus and as well interact with other charged matter particles (like electrons and other protons), holding/building up more complex matter forms.
Since vidhAtr, the charged hadrons, cause electromagnetic interaction between charged particles, they cause transfer of energy and is often equated to Agni. This also leads to creation of new matter forms. Hence vidhAtr’s wife (property of vidhAtr) is called ‘Kriya’, the maker or creator.
The electromagnetic interactions that vidhAtr causes are loosely bound compared to strongly bound forms of matter (as in atomic nucleus). Hence they are called puriSyas.
puriSa means that are loosely bound. puriSa is translated as ‘loose earth’ or excrement (as excrements are loose earth).
There are five different types of interactions that charged hadrons have. They are
1. Positive – Positive (Eg. Proton-Proton)
2. Positive – Negative (Eg. Proton-Electron)
3. Negative – Negative (Eg. Electron- Electron)
4. Positive- Neutral (Eg. Proton-Neutron)
5. Negative – Neutral (Eg. Electron-Neutron)
Bhaga – Energy in Neutral atoms
When positive charged proton and electron combine, they form neutral atoms. The neutral atom has electrons in their shells that they can share with other atoms. This creates elements, compounds and more complex molecules.
bhaga is one that shares. The sharing is of the electrons between the different atoms that creates the prosperity or wealth of matter in the Universe.
When first neutral atoms form, the photons that were interacting with charged matter particles no longer interact with them. They leave the particle cloud traveling through the entire spacetime forming a Cosmic Microwave Background. This leaving of photons is called the ‘dawn’ (Usa)of the Universe.
Since Bhaga, the formation of neutral atoms causes the dawn (Usa) of the Universe, Usa is visualized as Sister of bhaga.
bhagavAn is one who has the ‘bhaga’, who has something to share, thus bestowing with new matter forms and wealth of matter. bhagavati is the atomic level binding energy in the matter forms.
Simply put, whoever shares and creates new matter forms, wealth or prosperity is the ‘bhagavan’.
SavitR – Energy in Complex atomic nucleus
The protons are positively charged. Hence two protons can never combine. But multiple protons are the basis of multiple elements which create this Universe. But this electromagnetic barrier is broken and protons fuse together creating new elements.
SavitR indicates this barrier-breaking and creation of new elements. This savitR is facilitated by Brahma, the curvature of spacetime leading to physical compression (gravtitational collapse) or Bhrgu, the quantum tunneling.
In a way our minds are ‘charged’ or ‘biased’. New thoughts do not come into our mind as they get repulsed by our existing biases. By meditating on Savitr, we want to inspire ourselves with that ability to overcome our biases, which then helps our mind to fuse with new thoughts and develop our knowledge, much like how neutrons help protons to fuse with each other.
This is the ‘secret’ of Gayatri mantra. Gayatri mantra is all about invoking (prachodayat) the most respected Savitr (tat savitr varenyam) in us/our thoughts (dhiyo yah nah) that produces all the luminance of this Universe (bhargo devasya dhimahi).
The teaching of Gayatri Mantra is called ‘Brahma- Upadesa’. Brahman is the ever expanding spacetime that is driving the evolution of matter and beings in the Universe. Upadesa is ‘teaching’.
What does that brahman, the ever expanding teach us..? It teaches us to overcome the biases/repulsions in ourself and fuse with new thoughts creating new knowledge, like the protons that fuse with protons overcoming the barriers, producing all the luminance and driving evolution.
Hence Gayatri mantra is held in high reverence across sanatana dharma.
More posts by this author:
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 3
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 1
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 2
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 8
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 9 (daityAs and dasvathAra)