Science of Surya Mantra and Aditya Hrdayam
There is a great consistency in the meanings I find across slokas of Nasaidya Suktam, Purusha Suktam, Aitareya Upanishad, Rudram Chamakam, Rudram Namakam, Surya Mantra, Aditya Hrdayam etc. I am increasingly confident about these translations as there is a great and natural consistency across all these slokas, in the way I interpret them.
In fact most times my translations of these slokas are direct meanings, from root of words. Also I have taken care that I split the verses of these slokas as it is done conventionally and as recited orally, so that I don’t ‘invent’ any new things, as much as possible.
Diti means that is bounded/tied. Diti is also something that could be split or cut, as it is bounded or tied. The entire Universe was bound initially (Diti) and it became unbounded (Aditi). Those that are part of the Diti (or the bounded Universe) are the sub-atomic particles and forces that are hidden from our obvious intellect.
Puranas depict such hidden forces with great strength as asuras and say that Asuras are the sons of Diti.
Aditi means unbounded/free. When the Universe un-bounded in the Big-Bang, Stellar evolution took place. Stellar evolution produced chemical elements (Adityas) and biological factors (Vasus). The chemical and biological elements along with the forces (Rudras) in the unbounded universe are called Devas.
Puranas depict such forces in the unbounded Universe as Devas and say that Devas are the Sons of Aditi.
There are thirty three types of Devas. They are the 11 Rudras, 12 Adityas and 8 vasus. Apart from these Amba (energy/matter) and Purusha (dark matter) are the two ‘devas’ that are part of the unbounded Universe.
I had mapped 11 Rudras to 11 forces and 11 dimensions of Space (Reference 1). These 11 Rudras are the forces that drive various activities in physical, chemical and biological dimensions.
I had also corroborated it with my interpretations of Rudram Chamakam blog (Reference 2).
I had also explained the 8 vasus as biological factors that sustain biological beings and evolve them in my blog (Reference 3)
Here I am mapping Adityas to Stellar evolution or evolution of Chemical elements in the Universe with Surya Mantra and Aditya Hrdayam as the basis.
Aditya (Galaxy) and Asva (Star)
The term ‘Adityas’ (plural) is used to indicate chemical elements. When used in Singular as ‘Aditya’, it can also mean the ‘one from which everything started’. Going by the position of this Singlular ‘Aditya’ in Surya Mantra, Aditya indicates a gas cloud in which the creation of chemical elements takes place. (Gaseous cloud in which nuclear fusion creates chemical elements).
Going by the position of Aditya in Surya Mantra, it means our Milky Way Galaxy (or the Gas cloud from which our Milky way galaxy was formed).
Asva denotes any Star that radiates its energy in seven ways. Since Sun is shown as driven by seven horses and Asva also means a horse, I map that the Stars radiate their energy in seven ways. I had mapped Asva to Sun in the slokas of Purusha suktam too.
Scientifically Asva could be seen as a star radiating in all parts of visible spectrum. Hence the word asva is suitable for any radiating activity including our Sun.
The surya mantra actually depicts the evolution of Surya, which is nothing but Sun of our Solar System. The point to note here is that this mantra talks about evolution of Surya (our Sun) and not ‘any’ Star.
OM RHAM RHIM RHUM RHAIM RHOUM RHAH
MITRA RAVI SURYA BHANU KHAGA PUSHAN HIRANYAGARBHA MARICHI ADITYA SAVITRU ARKA BHASKAREBHYO NAMO NAMAHA.
Bhaskara means one that makes the light. Bhaskara is the stage in which the dense regions in the gas clouds contract/collapse and form ‘protostars’ so a star begins its life as a large and comparatively cool mass of gas.
Arka means heat, heating up etc. This is the stage of star when contraction of gas raises temperature until the interior temperature of the star reaches a value of about 1,000,000°C (about 1,800,000°F) at which the nuclear reaction sets off in the star.
Savitr means one that gives life. Saivtr is the stage of star that kicks off the nuclear reaction and subsequent nuclear fusion which leads to the formation of a Main Sequence Star, which in turn leads to stars like sun. In other words Savitr (nuclear reactions) is the one that gives life to stars like Sun. Hence I described Savitr as the ‘seed of fire’, in my interpretations on Gayatri Mantra.
Aditya means descendant or the one that is derived from Aditi. When used in Singular like this, it can also mean the one from which everything started.
Aditya is the beginning of main sequence stars, in which nuclear fusion starts producing elements. Such stars fuse hydrogen in their cores and form helium. They begin to release energy, stopping them from contracting even more and cause them to shine.
Marichi means particle as well light. It is the stage of a star when the fuel runs out, as all hydrogen has converted to helium. The star has lost the ability to emit huge energy, as the fuel has run out almost.
Hiranya-garbha means golden uterus. I map it to the stage when the helium core contracts and heats up. In this stage higher elements are formed and the star looks like a glowing golden uterus.
Pushan means to increase or nourish. This is the stage when the core has contracted to such an extent that the outer layers begin to expand or can begin to expand. This is varyingly called Red Giant or Red Super Giant stage according to science.
Khaga means that moves out in air or that flies. This is the stage in which the outer layers move away or fly away from the core and form a gaseous shell that is referred to as a ‘Nebula’ or ‘Planetary Nebula’.
From this planetary nebula that expands in all directions, the gaseous clouds that fly away start a process as described in the Bhaskara stage of evolution of star. That is they compact, heating up and making light. That it they go through the Arka and Savitr stages of evolution once again and make a new star.
The difference is this time the star that is formed has higher concentration of heavier elements in them compared to those present in the previous Bhaskara stage, as the planetary nubulae has higher elements that are formed from the red-giant stage of the previous star.
From this nebula forms our star, Surya the Sun, when gas clouds of nebula contract and start the formation of star again.
Bhanu means lustrous or bright. Bhanu is the name given to the lustrous period of our Sun, the Surya, in which the light gets created in the gas cloud, a la Bhaskara stage. The Bhaskara stage of our Surya is always referred to as ‘Bhanu Bhaskara’, which could be seen as Surya that came from ‘Bhanu’ of type Bhaskara
Actually this is what happened in the evolution of our solar system. If we map this evolution according to this mantra, in the Milky way galaxy, there are nebulae thrown out of dead stars from which our Surya and other planets (solar system) has evolved. This is in sync with current theories too, which clearly say that our Sun is not a first generation star.
Surya is our Sun or the Star of our Solar system. It is a Main-Sequence star that has been formed from a planetary Nebulae thrown out of an earlier dead star. It is a next generation star with higher concentration of higher elements.
Ravi means dim, white light. The core referred as Pushan by this time has become a ‘white-dwarf’ or ‘neutron star’ called ‘Ravi’. At this stage, the star radiates approximately same energy in all parts of visible spectrum and hence appear white.
Mitra means one that holds and provides stability. The Ravi (white dwarf) looses all the energy and become the ones that hold and provide stability to the galaxy and are called ‘Mitra’, the one that holds and provides stability, even without contributing any energy directly. Thus Mitra became synonymous for a ‘friend’.
These could become black-holes or black dwarfs. But my interpretation of Aditya Hrdayam, in the following sections, state that these get dissolved into Quarks.
According to current theories, it is not clear that these dwarfs/black-holes contribute stability or hold the galaxy in any way.
Since our star the Surya came from the gas cloud of Aditya, we can consider Aditya, when referred in singular, to represent our Milky way Galaxy.
In every stage of the galaxy different chemical elements are formed. For eg in Aditya stage helium forms. In Marici it is probably oxygen. In Hiryana Garbha it should be neon, carbon, iron etc. In Pushan stage still higher order elements are formed. It is said that predominantly twelve elements are formed in our Aditya, the Milky way Galaxy. Hence our Aditya is referred to as one with twelve souls.
Adityas in general mean the ones that are unbounded. If I interpret it from Surya Mantra and Aditya Hrdayam, Adityas are referred to those gas-clouds in which nuclear fusion is taking place and elements are being evolved. Aditya could refer to a first-generation star with primitive elements as well refer to a galaxy with several next generation stars with higher concentration of higher order elements.
Both Surya Mantra and Aditya Hrdayam refer to our Aditya (the Milky Way Galaxy) and our Surya (the Sun).
Our Aditya, the Milky way Galaxy, says the Aditya Hrdayam has twelve ‘souls’ or made of twelve components. It calls it ‘dvadasa-atman’. Science says that Milky way galaxy is made of twelve elements (predominantly). They are Hydrogen, Helium, Oxygen, Carbon, Neon, Iron, Nitrogen, Silicon, Magnesium, Sulfur, Potassium and Nickel.
Sage Agastya’s advice – Psychology and science
Aditya Hrdayam is part of Ramayana, in which the Sage Agastya talks to Ram and asks him to recite Aditya Hrdayam three times to win-over his fatigue and nervousness. It is set in the backdrop of a battle between Ram and Ravan, in which the fortunes have been swinging in both directions and both are evenly matched.
After a difficult fight, Ravana who left the battle-field, re-entered with renewed vigor and was facing Rama. Rama was absorbed in thought on how to bring this battle to an end and that is the stage in which Sage Agastya renders this advice to Ram.
Sage Agastya sets a psychological and scientific perspective in this advice to Ram. He provides a psychological big picture of Universe to Ram in which birth and death for necessary to evolve in intelligence from Adityas (Chemical elements of our galaxy) to Vasus. He also provides a scientific perspective by advising Rama to invoke the 12 chemical elements of Aditya (our milky way galaxy) in the war against Ravana to be victorious.
In fact the core mantras of Aditya Hrdayam traces the evolution of Universe, then the stellar evolution and then the evolution of our Star the Surya and then asks Rama to invoke that chemical elements evolve in this stellar evolution.
He asks Rama to invoke the 12 souls of Aditya, the 12 chemical elements in the war against Ravana and be victorious. Thus Sage Agastya advises Rama to use Material science or simply Science of elements to win the War against Ravana.
Brahma astra – Made of all known elements
Saying these Sage Agastya handed over the Brahamastra to Rama. Valmiki says Brahmastra had the force of wind (Vajeshu Pavana), power of ignited gaseous clouds in its tip (phale pavaka bhaskara) (explosive tip), stability of Meru mountain, made of all the elements that came from the bhaskara (Sarva Bhutanam krita Bhaskara).
And indeed Rama heeded the advice of Ravana, by using the Brahamaastra which is made of all 12 elements of our Milky way galaxy on Ravana and emerged victorious.
Operative part of Aditya Hrdayam
Rashmi mantam samudyantam devaasura namaskritam
Poojayasva vivasvantam bhaaskaram bhuvaneshvaram
Rashmi mantham Samudyantam – In the churn of the ocean bounded by this girdle/Controller (a force that binds and churned the oceanic gas clouds)
Devaasura – atomic particles and sub atomic-particles
Namaskritam – submitted
Pujay asva vivasvantam – Revered radiations (that radiates in seven ways) started (vivas – shine of the morning dawn)
Bhaskaram Bhuvaneswaram – in the gas-clouds of the Universe
In the churn of the oceanic gas clouds bounded by a rope/girdle/Controller the atomic and sub-atomic particles submitted. Revered radiations (that radiates in seven ways) were initiated in the gas-clouds of the Universe
Sarva devaatmako hyesha tejasvee rashmi bhaavanah
Esha devaasura ganaan lokaan paati gabhastibhih
Sarva deva aatmako hyesha – In the depth of all the elements roars mightily
tejasvee rashmi bhaavana – the glow of this bond’s impression/control/thought
Esha – Going after
Deva – elements
Asura – Hidden Sub-atomic particles with great force
Ganaan – molecules (sets of atoms) (Ganas mean a set also)
Lokaan – elements
pATi – split, broken, cut, cleave
gabhastibhi – forked (made openings)
pATi gabhastibhi – splitting/cutting/cleaving them with openings (sculpting these out of the gas clouds)
Esha deva asura gananaan – Going after elements, sub-atomic particles, molecules
Lokaan Paati gabhastibhi – Sculpting/cleaving and opening such things
I had mapped Devas and Asuras to ions and sub-atomic particles in my blog on Rudram (Reference 2).
In the depths of all the atomic particles roars the glowing controller’s control/thought, going after elements, sub-atomic particles, molecules, sculpting them.
Esha brahmaa cha vishnuscha shivah skandah prajaapatih
Mahendro dhanadah kaalo yamassomo hyappam patih
Esha Brahma cha – Going after/Hastening creation and
Vishnu cha – the basic Unit of matter
Shiva – the force of Purusha (dark matter) on Amba (matter)
Skandah – spurts/effuses
Prajaapatih – (is) as the accompaniment of the particles and forces in the Unbounded Universe.
Going after creation and the basic unit of matter, Shiva, the force (of the dark matter) spurts/effuses to be the accompaniment of these particles and forces.
Thus Agastya in these verses explains the binding force as Shiva, the force of Purusha (dark matter) on matter. I had explained Shiva as the force of Purusha (dark matter) on Amba (matter) and Vishnu as the basic unit of matter in my blog on Rudram. References 1 and 2.
Siva also means the one who sews or stitches or bonds.
This is the thought force that Agastya says is driving the intelligence evolution in Universe, by accompanying the evolution of particles.
Mahendro Dhanada – plenty of Baryonic ions
Kaalo Yama somo– Dark matter reins/controls the acidic medium
apam pati – Accompanies the alkaline medium that sustain life
Plenty of Baryonic ion (Hydrogen ion) and this dark matter reins in the acidic medium of life and accompanies the alkaline medium of life. This thought force of Purusha (dark matter) reins in the acidic medium and accompanies the alkaline medium of life.
I had explained Indra as the Baryonic ion in my blog on Rudram (Ref 2).
pitaro vasavah sadhya hyashvinau maruto manuh
vayurvahnih praja-prana ritukarta prabhakarah
Pitaro – ancestors
Vasavah – of the vasus (biological beings)
sAdhya – establishes (are thus established)
ashvinau –Mesonic forces in
Maruto – gases that move fast
Manu – set the intelligence (or its evolution in vasus)
Vayur vahnih – The Carrier of life-giving gases
Praja Pranan – set the metabolism in being
ritu karta – the maker of changes
Prabakara – that makes the light
I had mapped asvins to mesons in my blog on Rudram (Reference 2).
The ancestors of biological beings thus establishes while the mesonic forces initate the intelligence. The carrier of life-giving gases sets the metabolism of the Universe that makes seasons and light.
adityah savita suryah khagah pusha gabhastiman
suvarnasadrisho bhanur-hiranyareta divakarah
Aditya Savita Surya – Our surya given life by this Aditya (the Milky way galaxy)
Khagah Pusha gabhastiman – flew away from the Pushan’s (Red Giant) (vulva) openings
Gabha – Vulva
Gabhasti – fork-like, hands with fingers (with openings)
Khaga – moved in air /flew away from
Pusha Gabhastiman – the Pusha with vulva openings
Suvarna sadrzo Bhanur – Gold like Bhanu (our Bhaskara stage of Surya) (the one that flew away from Pushan’s vulva)
Hiranya Reta – (is) the golden seed
Dhivakarah – of our SUN (that makes our day)
Aditya (Milky way galaxy) arouses the Surya (our sun) as the sun flows away from the Pushan (Red Giant) openings. This Golden like Bhanu (the Bhaskara stage of our Surya) (that flew away from Pushan) is the Golden seed of the one that makes our day (Sun).
haridashvah sahasrarchih saptasapti-marichiman
timironmathanah shambhu-stvashta martanda amshuman
harida ashvah – The yellow-green radiation (that radiates away energy in seven ways indicated by seven horses), the yellow green star
sahasrarchih – with thousands of heating up flames (high temperature)
saptasapti-marichiman – in seven ways will become Marici(run out of fuel)
timiron mathana shambu – (leaving) a gloom igniting (producing) shell/conch
tvashta martanda amshuman- neutrino’s spring from this lifeless egg filled with quarks (emitting neutrinos, dissolves into lifeless quarks)
This yellow-green radiation radiates energy in seven ways with thousands of heating up flames and becomes a Marici (it runs out of fuel). It will become a gloomy shell in which neutrinos spring making it lifeless egg of Quarks. (This is the end of Surya)
hiranyagarbhah shishira stapano bhaskaro ravihi
agni garbho’diteh putrah shankhah shishira nashanaha
hiranya-garbhah – The golden uterus (what is left behind of Pushan after things go out of it)
shishira- cools down, becomes frigid
stapano bhaskaro ravihi – establishes the active gas-cloud as a white-dwarf
agni garbho diteh putrah – the son of diti that emerged from the uterus of fire
shankah shishira nashanah – gets destroyed to a shell of cold
The golden uterus (from which Surya and several other stars emerged) cools down and becomes a white-dwarf/neutron star from an igniting gaseous cloud. The son of diti that emerged from uterus of fire gets destroyed to a cold shell. (This is the end of Pushan from which Surya evolved)
ghanavrishtirapam mitro vindhya-vithiplavangamaha
vyoma-nathas – the lord of the vyom (gaseous universe)
tamo – darkness
bhedi – breaking
rig,yajus, sama paaragaha – crossing over the cosmic forces of rig, yajus sama
ghana vrishtira apa mitro – raining chemical elements that carries seed of life
Vindhya – finding, gaining, getting
Veethi – path
Plavangamaha – plunges, moves leaps and bounds
The lord of the gaseous/plasmic Universe (Vyom refers to the primordial Universe that existed as a plasmic cloud) breaks the darkness and goes to the other side of Rig, Yaju and sama (the side of knowledge). That is the lord of Vyom evolves in intelligence (from darkness to the knowledge). Atomic elements rain that hold the life-giving medium, flows in leaps and bounds in the path of finding intelligence.
I had explained vyom as the plasmic substance that existed in the primordial universe in my blog on Nasadiya sukam (Ref 4)
atapi mandali mrityuh pingalah sarvatapanaha
kavirvishvo mahatejah raktah sarva bhavodbhavaha
Atapi – afflicted
Mandali – in a cycle
Mrityuh – of death (quenched fire)
Pingalah – breadth (life)(reddish brown fire that occurs when fire is started)
Sarva – everything
tApana – undergoes this torment
kavir – knowledge or intelligence
Vishvo – universe
Maha tejah – great glow
Raktah – blood or red fluid that gives life
Sarva – everything or everyone or everywhere
Bhavod bhava – comes into existence.
Afflicted in a cycle of death and breath everything undergoes this torment. The Intelligence of Universe’s that glows greatly; comes into existence everywhere (in everything) as its blood. (as the blood of the Universe) (in this cycle of death and breath)
nakshatra grahataranam-adhipo vishva-bhavanah
tejasamapi tejasvi dvadashatman namo’stu te
nakshatra – constellations/galaxies
graha – planets
taranam – stars
adhipo – ruled by
vishva – this Universe’s
bhavanah – impression/Control/thought/imagination
(which drives all the evolution of intelligence)
Tejas – glow
Amapi – more raw
Tejasvi – glow
dvadashatman – One with 12 souls
namostutue – praise thee
All the galaxies, planets and stars are ruled by this Universe’s thought force, which glows in its raw form in the Twelve-soul Glow (of the Milky way Galaxy). Praise thee.
- In the churn of the oceanic gas clouds bounded by a rope/girdle/Controller the atomic and sub-atomic particles submitted. Revered radiations (that radiates in seven ways) were initiated in the gas-clouds of the Universe
- In the depths of all the atomic particles roars the glowing controller’s control/thought, going after elements, sub-atomic particles, molecules, sculpting them.
- Going after creation and the basic unit of matter, Shiva, the force (of the dark matter) spurts/effuses to be the accompaniment of these particles and forces. (This is the thought force that Agastya says is driving the intelligence evolution in Universe, by accompanying the evolution of particles.)
- Plenty of Baryonic ion (Hydrogen ion) and this purusha, the dark matter reins in the acidic medium of life and accompanies the alkaline medium of life.
- The ancestors of biological beings thus establishes.The mesonic forces initate the intelligence. The carrier of life-giving gases sets the metabolism of the Universe that makes seasons and light.
- Aditya (Milky way galaxy) arouses the Surya (our sun) as the sun flows away from the Pushan (Red Giant) openings. This Golden like Bhanu (the Bhaskara stage of our Surya) (that flew away from Pushan) is the Golden seed of the one that makes our day (Sun).
- This yellow-green radiation radiates energy in seven ways with thousands of heating up flames and becomes a Marici (it runs out of fuel). It will become a gloomy shell in which neutrinos spring making it lifeless egg of Quarks. (This is the end of Surya)
- The golden uterus (from which Surya and several other stars emerged) cools down and becomes a white-dwarf/neutron star from an igniting gaseous cloud. The son of diti that emerged from uterus of fire gets destroyed to a cold shell. (This is the end of Pushan from which Surya evolved)
- The lord of the gaseous/plasmic Universe (Vyom refers to the primordial Universe that existed as a plasmic cloud) breaks the darkness and goes to the other side of Rig, Yaju and sama (the side of knowledge). That is the lord of Vyom evolves in intelligence (from darkness to the knowledge). Atomic elements rain that hold the life-giving medium, flows in leaps and bounds in the path of finding intelligence.
- Afflicted in a cycle of death and breath everything undergoes this torment. The Intelligence of Universe’s that glows greatly; comes into existence everywhere (in everything) as its blood. (as the blood of the Universe) (in this cycle of death and breath)
- All the galaxies, planets and stars are ruled by this Universe’s thought force, which glows in its raw form in the Twelve-soul Glow (of the Milky way Galaxy). Praise thee.
Sage Agastya introduces Aditya Hrdayam to Rama with the following words
Aaditya Hridayam punyam sarva shatru vinaashanam
Jayaavaham japennityam akshayyam paramam shivam
Aditya – Milky way galaxy
Hridayam – Hridayam indicates the core which makes something tick. It indicates the core essence of something. Hrdayam is also the place that thought is finally controlled, according to several places in Vedas. While thought is processed in brain, there are several indications in Vedas that indicate thought is controlled in Hrdayam.
Punyam – Good deeds
Sarva Shatru Vinaashanam – annihilation of enemies.
Aditya Hrdayam is about the essence of our Aditya, the Milky way Galaxy. Agastya says understanding the essence of our Milky way galaxy leads to good deeds (psychological perspective) and annihilation of enemies (scientific perspective).
Jayavaham – conferring victory
Jape nityam – constant recital
akSayam – never decays /always receiving benefits
paramam – all things
shivam – force that binds
Constant recital confers victory and ever provides benefits from the force that binds everything.
Sarva mangala maangalyam sarva paapa pranaashanam
Chintaa shoka prashamanam ayur vardhanamuttamam
Sarva mangala maangalyam – Auspicious bindings everywhere
Sarva pappa pranaashanam – destroying evil deeds everywhere
Chintaa shoka prashamanam – Heals/cures worries and sorrows
Ayur vardhanam uttamam – Therefore good for long life.
Providing auspicious bindings everywhere and destroying evil deeds everywhere, it heals the worries and sorrows. Hence constant recital is good for long life.
When we recite Aditya Hrdayam, in midst of tough and challenging situations, after understanding its psychological perspective of evolution of intelligence driven by a binding thought control force, our sorrows and worries are left to that force and we surrender our tasks to that force.
When we recite Aditya Hrdayaam, after understanding its scientific perspective, wherein we need to invoke all the twelve elements (which was applicable in a war in those days) or in a modern context all available scientific tools to combat our worries and sorrows, we think logically and perform.
We perform with the acceptance that the result is left to this binding thought control force that we are all subjected to, as even our might milky way galaxy is subjected to the same torments, when it comes to that force.
As usual, interpretations here are mine. However looking at the consistency in the way my interpretations hold good across several slokas of Vedas, I am increasingly confident that I am on the right track.
However my sincere apologies to anyone if they felt hurt due to these interpretations.
More posts by this author:
- Aditya Hrdayam Again – Part 1
- The Mantra Tantras of Sandhya Vandanam – Surya Upasthanam
- The Mantra-Tantras of SandhyaVandanam – Finishing the Bath
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 3
- maruts- Quanta of force-fields