The Eternal Varna Asrama Dharma – Part 20

 

Background

What does Arya mean..? In this series I am arguing that Arya is not a race, but a civilizational identity based on various scriptures. I had earlier interpreted the word Arya as a combination of BrahmanA, kshatR, vaizYA or a civilization that has three Varnas.

But what really does Arya mean..?

As we saw in this hymn ealier, Trtsus (our Pitr’s or ancestral Rishis who are the third race of people) who cooked food, who were strong, who spoke little, who had huge intellect became friends of (sadhama) Aryas desire to evolve (Aryasya Gavya). It could be meant to say Trtsus became friends of those desiring to evolve as Arya.

In Essence, it says Sudasas (the receivers of Pitr’s knowledge, Su-good, dasa- receivers) desired to evolve as Aryas with Trtsu’s as the warriors fighting for them. In that case what does Arya mean here..?

In the Rg Veda Mandala 4 Hymn 26, Rishi Gautama Vamadeva describes the experience of ‘Brahman’ in him as

aham bhūmim adadāmāryāyāhaṃ vṛṣṭiṃ dāśuṣe martyāya

Which means “I am Earth. I give making/becoming an Arya. I am Rain. In receivers I die out”. In other words “Brahman is (like) Earth, gives like an Arya (making or becoming an Arya by giving)”. This indicates clearly that an Arya is one who gives out like earth. Similarly Brahman is (like) Rain and dies out or gets lost in the place it is received (dasa). This means Brahman merges without identity into its receiver (dasas).

The above depiction of Brahman as an ultimate giver like Earth and one that merges with its receiver like rain beautifully depicts the property of Brahman.

But also it starkly differentiates between Aryas and Sudasas. Aryas are givers. Sudasas are receivers.

That is why the Trtsu’s became friends of the Sudasas (receivers) desiring to evolve them as Aryas (givers). Correlating these two hymns, one can confidently say Arya means the giver.

Sudasas conquest of regions beyond Yamuna

āvadindraṃ yamunā tṛtsavaśca prātra bhedaṃ sarvatātāmuṣāyat |
ajāsaśca śighravo yakṣavaśca baliṃ śīrṣāṇi jabhruraśvyāni ||

Avad – to speak, to address

Indram – property of conquering

Addressing the conquest

yamunA – river yamuna..? (Yam – control, una – restrained, No control or llower control)

trtsava aksa – unto the key trtsu’s

of Yamuna, the key trtsu’s

prAtra –  to extend

bhedam – divisions

extend into small divisions

sarva tata – all expanded, all directions

musayat – go in all directions (run off like rats) (carried off)

in all directions carried off (expand in all directions in small groups)

Addressing to Conquer (newer regions) Yamuna , trtsu’s extend into small divisions and carried off in all directions

ajA – the she-goat, drove of people or troop

sakSca – associated or get united with

zighravo – quickly

The troops get united quickly (with the trtsus)

yakSa – Speed on, to be quick, worship, honor

vakSa – control

ca – and

control theYakshas (the unnatural forces that guard water) and

balim – they are offered, to them the offering is

zirSani – the head of, top-most of

jabhrur – those born or descended from the eye-brows (bhru), the top

akS – mark, key

vyAni – bows down

are offered the bowing down of the heads of the top-class (rulers..?) people

The troops (sudasAs) get united quickly (with trtsus) control the yakshas and are offered the bowing down of the heads of the rulers.

Addressing to conquer Yamuna (probably regions beyond Yamuna), the trtsus , extend into small divisions and carried off in all directions. The troops get united quickly (with the trtsus) control theYakshas (the unnatural forces that guard water) and are offered the bowing down of the heads of top-most.

na ta indra sumatayo na rāyaḥ saṃcakṣe pūrvā uṣaso na nūtnāḥ |
devakaṃ cin mānyamānaṃ jaghanthāva tmanā bṛhataḥ śambaraṃ bhet ||

Na – not

Ta – that

Indra – conquest

Sumatayo – the good intentioned

Na ta indra sumatayo

Not the conquest of goodwilled ones

Na – not

rAyah – the kingly

samcakse – observe, notice, reflect upon, examine

pUrvA – Eastern

usaso – morning, dawn

Not the royal observations of the dawn (which I interpret as the Sandhya Vandanam ritual as observed by the Sudasas)

na – not

nUtnAh – moderness, innovativeness, newness

not the moderness

Not the conquests of goodwilled ones, not the royal observations of the dawn, not the modernness

devakam – divine, celestial

cin – appear

mAnyamAnam – the honor, respect, proudness, proud

jaghanthav – rear-guard end, following

AtmanA –  of Self, one’s own, soul

Brhatah – greatest

Sambaram – war, fight, stop, hide

Bhet – fear

Divinity is honorably following the Soul’s (Atman) greatest fear fights (fight with fear)

Not the good intentioned conquests, not the daily rituals (Sandhya Vandanam), not the newness. Divinity is honorably following the Soul’s (Atman) greatest fear fights (fight with fear).

pra ye ghṛhādamamadustvāyā parāśaraḥ śatayāturvasiṣṭhaḥ |

na te bhojasya sakhyaṃ mṛṣantādhā sūribhyaḥ sudinā vyuchān ||

pra – Very much

ye – these

grhad- amama – reside selflessly

dust – difficult, hard, evil

vAya – leader

parAzarah – destroyers

zata – hundred

yAtur- travelling

vasisthah  – excellent ones

Very much these reside selflessly, destroyers of evil leaders, hundred travelling excellent ones

na – not

te – those

bhojasya – enjoying of this

sakhyam – friendship, companionship

mrSanta – forget, neglect

adhA – now

sUribhya – learned man’s

sudinA – happy times

Not those enjoying this friendship/companionship, forget the happiness (provided by) learned people.

These (who) reside selflessly, destroyers of evil leaders, hundred travelling excellent ones. Not those enjoying this friendship/companionship (of these Rishis like Vasishta) forget the happiness of learned people.

Sudasas enjoy the friendship / companionship of the selfless and hence move along with the Trtsus, lead by the Trtsus.

dve napturdevavataḥ śate ghordvā rathā vadhūmantā sudāsaḥ
arhannaghne paijavanasya dānaṃ hoteva sadma paryemi rebhan

Dva – The two, both

Ena – that

Dvena –by two, face to face, secretly

aptur – active, busy

Deva – divine

Vata – speaking

Zate – hundreds

Gor – evolution, evolve

Dva  – the two

Face to face active divine conversations in hundreds evolve the two/both (Selfless destroyers of evils (Trtsus) and those enjoying the companionship of them (sudAsas). The two are mentioned in the previous verse.

Ratha – warrior/heroes

Vadhumanta – group of new brides, newly initiated, newly come

Sudasa – sudAsa

Warriors/heroes in ‘herd of new brides’ SudAsa, (Those who are heroes in the herd of Sudasas, the Sudasas are described as herd of new brides, as they are just getting into a new way life)

Arha – deserve, worthy, becoming

Nagne – new ones (those that start afresh)

Paijavanasya – fast learners

Java – swiftness, at once, speed, velocity

javana – that are fast

pijavana – those that can speedily move ahead, which I interpret as those that can speedily learn

dAnam – gift

Deserve or become the new fast learner’s gift (the gift received by deserving new fast learners or fast movers)

The gift to heroes in the the ‘new bride group’ of SudAsas, who are worthy to be (or have become)  new fast learners is

hotr-eva – priest only

sadma – placed

paryemi – search me, to go around me, move around me, enquire me

rebhan – chants

the hotr (priest who recites the Rg Veda) placed to search/enquire the chants

Face to Face actively divinely conversing, hundreds (of verses) come out/evolve of the two. The heroes in the ‘new bride group’ of SudAsas (as Sudasas get initiated in a new way of life, they are the new bride groups), who are fast learners receive the gift to be the Hotr, the priest who search/enquire the chants.

Thus the fast movers (learners) in the Sudasas receive the gift to be the Hotr from the Trtsus.

catvāro mā paijavanasya dānāḥ smaddiṣṭayaḥ kṛśanino nireke
ṛjrāso mā pṛthiviṣṭhāḥ sudāsastokaṃ tokāya śravase vahanti

catvAro – Four parts of

mA – large

paijavanasya – quick learners

dAnAh – gifts

Four large gift received by the quick-learners are

smaddistayah – well trained/practiced

Being well trained/practiced or good practice

krzAnino – thin and feeble

krza – thin, feeble

krzanu – thin shaped which could mean a string that pulsates (and hence applied to pulsating), bow or bending the bow (and hence applied to archer). It could also be a comparison for lightning, a string of pearls.

Krzanino –Chanting well,  archer, fire in lightning, one decorated with pearls

nireke – superior, Superiorly

krzanino nireke – Superiorly thin stringed, which I interpret as either superiorly chanting or being a superior archery

rjraso – leadership /moving ahead quickly in

ma – large

prthivisthah – earth firmly

firm leadership of the large earth (with its beings)

sudasa –sudasas

stokam – little

tokAya – offspring, newborn type, newly borns

zravase- swiftly or channeled

vahanti – are carried (like wind, infant)

Carry sudasas swiftly like new-borns

Four large gifts to the quick learners are good practice, superior archery, firm leadership of the large earth (with its beings) and carrying the rest of Sudasas swiftly like new-borns

yasya śravo rodasī antarurvī śīrṣṇe-śīrṣṇe vibabhājā vibhakta
saptedindraṃ na sravato ghṛṇanti ni yudhyāmadhimaśiśādabhīke

yasya – whose

zravo – sounds/hearings of

rodasi –  lightning

antarurvi – between the two wide ones (heaven and earth..?)

Like the wide gap between sound and lightning

sirsne – sirsne – head to head

viba – visibly

bhAja – possessing

vibhakta – divided, distributed, partitioned

saptedindram – unto the people who conquered the seven regions (SudAsas)

Head to head visibly divivded into two divisions

Like the wide gap between sound and lightning, SudAsas visibly split into two divisions

na – not

stavato – the praised ones, hymns

grnantini – singers, teachers (people who chant and spread)

Not (just) hymn teachers

yudhyAmadhi –  intelligent fighters

ma – mine, our

Intelligent fighters our

zizad – productive, potent

abhike – fearless people, masters, poets, lustful

Productive/potent masters/leaders

Like the wide gap between sound and lightning, the SudAsas split into two divisions. The quick learning warriors of the SudAsas get trained and practiced to lead the earth and carry the rest like children. They (the quick-learners) are not just hymn singers/teachers, but intelligent, fighting, productive leaders.

Thus SudAsas split into two divisions or two Varnas, one that leads (paijavanas) and one that follows. Those that lead, the Paijavanas became the Brahmanas and that follow became the Vaizyas.

imaṃ naro marutaḥ saścatānu divodāsaṃ na pitaraṃ sudāsa
aviṣṭanā paijavanasya ketaṃ dūṇāśaṃ kṣatramajaraṃ duvoyu

imam – in this way we, now present before me

naro – human

marutah – people who live in wilderness (desert, mountain), wind, other forces

sazcatAnu – they are pursuers, overpowerers

divodAsam – Recievers of Heaven/Sky (Heavenly receivers)

na – not

pitaram – ancestors of

sudasah – Sudasas

Now present before me, human people who live in wilderness, those pursuers/overpowerers who are receivers from Heaven/Sky and not the ancestors of Sudasas.

avistana – subject to, burdened, engrossed, intent on, being

paijavanasya – this fleet of people’s

paijavana – a citizen of pijavana

javana – fleet of people, pi – near

ketam – desir, wish

The paijavanas (quick learners in the SudAsas) intently desire/wish

dunasam – perpetual property

ksatramajaram – power self-cleaning property

duvoyu – honored, revered ones

the perpetualness, power and self-cleaning  of the honored ones (Trtsus)

Now present before me, the human people who live in wilderness, those pursuers who receive from heaven and not the ancestors of Sudas. The Quick-learners in the SudAsas (paijavanas) intently desire the perpetualness, power and self-cleaning property of those honored revered ones.

Summary of this Part

Addressing to conquer Yamuna (probably the regions beyond Yamuna) the trtsus extend into small divisions and carried off in all directions.  The troops (the SudAsas) get united quickly (with the trtsus) control theYakshas (the unnatural forces that guard water) and are offered the bowing down of the heads of top-most.

Not the good-intentioned conquests, not the daily morning rituals (of Sandhya Vandana), not the newness, their Divinity is honorably following the Soul’s (Atman) greatest fear fights (fight with fear). In other words divinity of Trtsus is in fighting our fears (which is the characteristic of our Atma).

In other words divinity of the Trtsus’ was is in fighting the fears (which is the characteristic of our Atma) and not in the conquests they lead, not in the daily rituals they followed and not in their newness. It was their fighting the ‘souls’ fear that lead to their divinity or their greatness.

These reside selflessly, destroyers of evil leaders, hundred travelling excellent ones. Not those enjoying this friendship/companionship (of these Rishis like Vasishta) forget the happiness of learned people.

Face to Face actively divinely conversing, hundreds (of verses) come out/evolve of the two. The heroes in the ‘new bride group’ of SudAsas (as Sudasas get initiated in a new way of life, they are the new bride groups), who are fast learners receive the gift to be the Hotr, the priest who search/enquire the chants.

Thus the fast movers (learners) in the Sudasas receive the gift to be the Hotr from the Trtsus.

Four large gifts to the quick learners are good practice, superior archery, firm leadership of the large earth (with its beings) and carrying the rest of Sudasas swiftly like new-borns

Like the wide gap between sound and lightning, the SudAsas split into two divisions as the quick learning warriors of the SudAsas get trained and practiced to lead the earth and carry the rest like children. They are not just hymn teachers, but intelligent, fighting, productive leaders.

Thus SudAsas split into two divisions or two Varnas, one that leads (paijavanas) and one that follows. Those that lead, the Paijavanas became the Brahmanas and that follow became the Vaizyas.

Now present before me, the human people who live in wilderness, those pursuers who receive from heaven and not the ancestors of Sudas. The Quick-learners in the SudAsas (paijavanas) intently desire the perpetualness, power and self-cleaning property of those honored revered ones.

Thus this hymn 18 describes the migration of Sudasas, their guidance by those who had ancestral knowledge, their learning from them, their conquest into Dard and regions beyond Yamuna, how the group of Sudasas divide into two groups with fast learners among them leading the society, while the rest of Sudasas follow them.

The paijavanas, in my view, become the brahmanas while the rest became vaizyas (in my view, not in this hymn).

Conventional interpretation by Griffith as follows

Yamuna and the Trtsus aided Indra. There he stripped Bheda bare of all his treasures. The Ajas and the Sigrus and the Yaksus brought in to him as tribute heads of horses. Not to be scorned, but like Dawns past and recent, O Indra, are thy favours and thy riches. Devaka, Manyamanas’ son, thou slewest, and smotest Sambara from the lofty mountain. They who, from home, have gladdened thee, thy servants ParasaraVasisthaSatayatu, Will not forget thy friendship, liberal Giver. So shall the days dawn prosperous for the princes. Priestlike-, with praise, I move around the altar, earning Paijavanas’ reward, O Agni, Two hundred cows from Devavans’ descendant, two chariots from Sudas with mares to draw them. Gift of Paijavana, four horses bear me in foremost place, trained steeds with pearl to deck them.Sudass’ brown steeds, firmlystepping-, carry me and my son for progeny and glory. Him whose fame spreads between wide earth and heaven, who, as dispenser, gives each chief his portion, Seven flowing rivers glorify like Indra. He slew Yudhyamadhi in close encounter attend on him O ye heroic Maruts as on Sudass’ father Divodasa. Further Paijavanas’ desire with favour. Guard faithfully his lasting firm dominion.

Next – Overall summary of Hymn 18 and its relevance to Varna evolution

-TBT

 

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