The Mantra Tantras of Sandhya Vandanam – Yama Vandanam


We visited the abode of Atma, saluted the characteristics of that Atma (Change, Self-drive, Nuetral/Creation, Fast movement/Knowledge). Then we saluted all the forces that emanated from Atma. We saluted the one that protects our desire and removes the indignation.


Then we did an Abivadaye to introduce ourselves to the Atman.


Then we turned around and looked at the multiple direction of space that emanate from Atman and saluted them. These directions make up the multiple dimensions of space.


This Atma, the abundant energy is the North.  This Atman evolves into Universe and its intelligence in a ‘controlled’ way.


How does Atman control the Universe..?

It is through the ‘Eternal Laws of the Universe’ called the ‘Dharma’. The Laws of the Universe, established by Atman that remain eternal throughout the duration of the Universe are the way by which the Atman controls the evolution of the Universe.




After saluting the Atma, we return back home by descending to south. Yama, the Controller is the one who implements the Laws of Universe and manifests in myriad ways including causing death and dissolution.


Yama Vandanam – The Mantra Part


Yamaya nama

Yamaya dharma rajaya , mrutyuve cha anthakaya cha

Vaivaswathaya kalaya  sarva bhootha kshayaya cha

Oudhumbharaya  dhagnaya  neelaya parameshtine

Vrukodharaya  chithraya  chithra gupthaya vai nama


Chithra gupthaya vai nama om nama ithi



Yama- Control, YamAya – controller

YamAya Nama – Salutations to the controller


YamAya – Controller of Universe

Dharma RajAya – Implementer of Laws of Universe

Mrutyuve ca – Death

Antakaya ca – and decay to the end


The Universe is controlled by the eternal Laws of Universe in all the domains (physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics) from gravity to speed of light.


All the eternal laws of the Universe (what we see as eternal) are designed towards the Death and decay (to get back to that Atma from where everything originated).


Yama, the Controller of the Universe is tasked with implementing these Laws.


VaivaswathAya – Life, Light, (manifests as Life, Light)

KAlAya – Death, Darkness, Time (manifests as Death, Darkness)

Sarva bootha Ksayaya ca – and in which all matter and beings reside


Matter and beings reside in between the manifestation of Life (light) and manifestation of Death (Darkness).


Oudumbaraya – Hidden inside (where the flower is hidden in the fruit), Like the oudhumbara (where the flower is hidden inside the fruit)

Dhagnaya – dagdhaya – one that falls short of (reaches upto)


Yama, the controller is hidden inside every matter and being (falling short of the surface) as the flower is hidden in the Oudumbara fruit.


Nilaya – The Blue one

Parameshtine – one that is superior


In the spectrum of colors, the ones above the blue are Ultra-violet, X-rays and Gamma rays which in general are the radiations that ionize.


This Yama, the controller manifests as ionizing radiations above blue (Ultra-violet radiations).


Vrukodaraya – The one who can tear of anything (Science calls radiations that can tear of atoms as ionizing radiation and these radiations are those above the blue in spectrum)


These ionizing radiations capable of tearing away anything (their navel tears everything) manifest in manifold ways and are hidden in manifold ways inside the matter and beings


Chitraya – manifests in manifold ways

Chitra Guptaya – hidden in manifold ways

Chitra Guptaya vai Namah – Salutations to only one who is hidden in manifold ways

Chitra Guptaya vai Namah Om Namah Iti – Salutations to that which is hidden in manifold ways everywhere in the Universe.


Salutations to the one that is hidden in manifold ways in the Universe.


Yama the controller is hidden in manifold ways in the Universe.  The ionizing radiations manifest as Chemical reactions that impact metabolism of biological beings. The ionizing radiations manifest as radioactivity causing physical reactions. The ionizing radiation manifest as chemical reactions that forms new chemical elements and compounds.


Yama – The ionizing radiation and the Clock of Universe


Yama, the controller is the one that implements the Laws of the Universe, death and dissolution. All matter and beings reside between life and death. Thus ‘death’ and ‘time’ becomes synonymous.


Like the oudumbara that hides its flowers, Yama hides inside every matter and being. Yama manifests as the ionizing radiations that are above blue and that tears up everything. Yama also manifests in various ways in Universe from physical, chemical reactions to biological reactions.


Thus Yama, the controller, the ionizing radiation, that causes life and death, that hides inside every being, manifests in various ways is the ‘Clock’ of every matter and being in the Universe.


Rudra and Yama


There are eleven Rudras and five types of Rudras. Eshana, Tat Purusha, Aghora, Vamadeva and SadyoJatas are the five types of Rudra.


I had mapped Eshana to Higgs, Tat Purusha to force of dark matter on matter, Aghora to Strong force, Vamadeva to EM force and SadyoJatas to set of forces that are born in the immediate vicinity to facilitate evolution.


SadyoJatas are the seven Rudras that remain (apart from the four Rudras mentioned above). They are forces that evolve Karnau, Hrdaya, Manasa, Candrama, Zizna, Reta and Apa.


I had mapped Karnau to Gravitation, Hrdaya to force that forms the Baryons, Manasa to force that forms the nucleons, Candrama to force that forms the atoms (weak-force), Zizna to force that forms the compounds and polymers, force that forms the acidic medium and Ribosomes, force that forms the alkaline medium and Base pairs of DNA.


The Rudras of SadyoJata ‘give’ life. The “Yama’ takes it away.


If Vamadeva Rudra is the originator of the EM force, the left handside of the Vamadeva is the spectrum covering the visible and below the Visible range, which gives life. Yama is the Right-hand side of the EM force, the spectrum that is above the Visible range (ultra-violet, X-rays, Gamma rays etc), the ionizing radiations that take away life.


Vamadeva gives by left hand as the Rudra and takes it away by Right hand as the Yama.


These ionizing radiations cause all the activity of matter. If the weak force builds up atoms, ionizing radiations ‘noose’ the electrons out. If Rudra manifests in building the protons, neutrons, polymers, ribosomes, DNA pairs, the ionizing radiations knock the protons, neutrons, electrons, chemical elements and DNA pairs out.


When Rudra manifests as the gravitational force, the Yama of ionizing radiation impact the matter that creates the gravitational force, destroying the matter and thereby the gravitational force.


When Rudra manifests as a black-hole, then the Yama/ionizing radiations (probably) gets into the black-hole with higher and higher energy and I presume causes dissolution of all matter in the black-hole to some primordial matter form by impacting the matter inside the black-hole.


The whole life of matter and beings is a conflict between Rudras and Yama, as illustrated in the story of Markandeya.


But for Yama, Vamadeva side of Rudras would be abundantly giving. Yama takes it away and controls, provides the balance to evolution.


Yama and Nachiketa


That is why Yama, as the Controller, teaches Nachiketa about the Inverted Banyan tree.


The banyan tree is is the tree of the Universe, where the root is the Atman/Brahman, located deep inside the origins of Universe. The forces, chemical elements, biological beings evolve one on another as branches, sprouts and leaves evolve in a tree.


We the intelligent beings are at the leaf and if we look upwards at the origins of Universe where the root is located, through the forces of physics, chemistry and biology it is an inverted banyan tree.


We evolve in the process of life with the assistance of Rudras (eleven forces) and are taken back to our roots in the process of death by the Yama.


Refer my blog on Inverted Banyan tree here.


Yama manifests as Clock


Yama manifests in multiple ways from ionizing radiations to chemical reactions that cause biological evolution as well as death.


The Yama or ionizing radiation can act on the Weak-force and ‘noose’ out electrons or nucleons from atoms (thereby causing radio-active decay and death of atoms)


The Yama ‘nooses’ out the phosphate backbone of DNA/RNA Base pairs thereby causing death to cells.


According to science it is the UV radiation that originated the biological clock in living being cells. Thus Yama (Neelaya Parameshtine) evolves the biological clock for every cell and hides inside every cell like Oudumbara,  thus manifesting as the Kala (time) of that cell.


Yama of Solar System


While the Yama that we talk about in TSV is the Universal controller, Solar system has its own ‘Control’ mechanisms and hence its own Yama and Yama Loka. These should not be confused with the Yama that we saw above in the TSV procedure.


Sun, Sani and Yama


For our Planet Earth, Sun is the Aditya which triggers life.


But the Yama (controller, ionizing radiations) we salute in TSV is the one existed much before Sun evolved. Sun also radiates in the spectrum above blue (ionizing, UV, Yama) and below blue (Visible, Sani).


Sun, according to our mythology has two sons. One is Sani, which is ‘Low speed’ or ‘Low Intellect’. Sani is radiation that is in the visible spectrum. This can be seen from the fact that Sani is stated to be born to Sun and Chaaya (Shadow of Sun formed by visible spectrum of Sun).


Yama is stated to be the ‘elder’ brother of Sani. From this it can be seen Yama is above the visible spectrum that cause ionizing radiation which cause life and death in Earth. Furthermore, Saranya is said to be the mother of Yama. Saranya means quick-footed, high speed etc.


Obvious that Yama’s mother has to be Saranya! (high-speed).

The Yojana of Yama Loka


Garuda Purana says Yama loka is at 88000 Yojanas from the Earth, while Surya Loka is said to expand to 100,000 yojanas.


A Yojana is a much disputed distance, as the concept of Yojana for some reason has lost its continuity very early in our civilization.


Yojana simply means a distance that can be travelled by an object in one run (a phase or stage) or travelled without stopping or travel ‘in a line’.  Thus Yojana by definition is a ‘relative’ distance and not an absolute distance. The Yojana baseline varies based on the object measured.


In Vedas also, yojana is defined in 7ways.

  1. Nara (human) yojana
  2. Bhu (earth) yojana
  3. Bha yojana
  4. Prakasa yojana- based on distance travelled by light
  5. Dhama yojana
    1. Ksara dhama
    2. Aksara Dhama
  6. Atma yojana based on the Core of Sun
  7. Pramaṇa yojana –Measure of lokas higher than solar-system, probably 500 times that of Atma Yojana


There seems to be clear but un-defined rules for using appropriate Yojanas at appropriate places. I would cover them in some other blog.

The Nara Yojana

A Nara Yojana is said to be 4000 Dandas (a Danda being a stick equal to 180 to 200 cm). It is also stated as equal to 32000 hands, as 1 Danda is equal to 8 hands.


This makes a Yojana a distance from 7200 (4000 *180) meters to 8000 meters (4000 * 200).


Surya Siddhanta says Moon’s diameter is 480 Yojanas, which is 3456 km (480 * 7.2 km). Modern estimates are 3470 km.  


The Yojana for Earth’s  surface measurements – Bhu Yojana

When it comes to measuring large distances on the Surface of Earth, Bhu Yojana is used. It is defined as 1600 parts of diameter of earth, which translates to 12800/1600 = 8 km.


It is better to use the 8000 meters as Bhu Yojana because Earth perceptibly curves around 5m for 8000 meters in an average. Hence 8000 meters can be said as a distance that an object can travel in a line, in an average, in planet earth (though earth curves continuously as in a sphere, 8000m is the perceptible distance of curvature)


This principle is used in modern satellites where Satellites go around the earth with a velocity of 8000 meter per second or more. Earth’s gravitational pull attracts them, but since the earth curves every second for them they keep going around the earth rather than falling onto earth.


Surya Siddhanta says Earth’s diameter is 1600 Yojanas, which is 12800 km. Modern estimates are 12740 km.

The Yojana for Sun’s surface measurements – Bha Yojana

The core of a Sun is 27 times that of Earth. Hence a Yojana in Sun would mean 27 times the Yojana of Earth. This comes to 216km as a Yojana, when it comes to measuring distances  of Sun’s surface. This is called the Bha Yojana. (Bha means one that shines)


Surya Siddhanta says Sun’s diameter is 6500 Yojanas, which is 1.4 million km (6500*216) approx. Modern estimates are the same.


The Yojana for distances between Earth and Sun – Bha  Yojana


Surya Siddhanta also says that the Orbital Circumference of  Sun’s movement (earth around the sun) is 4.33 million Yojanas (216km a Yojana as above which means 953 million kilometers) whose orbital radius roughly translates to 149 million kilometers. Indeed the average Earth-Sun distance is 150 million kilometers.


The reason for using the Bha Yojana is simply that of the two measures involved, Bha Yojana is the greater one.


The Yojana for speed of Surya Jyoti – Bhu Yojana


The fourth verse of the Rigvedic hymn 1:50 (50th hymn in book 1 of rigveda) states


“taraNir vishvadarshato jyotishkrdasi surya  vishvamaa bhaasirochanam”


which means “Swift and beautiful , O Surya, maker of the light, Illuminating the Universe”.


Commenting on this verse in his Rigvedic commentary, Sayana who was a minister in the court of the great Vijayanagar Empire wrote


tatha ca smaryate yojananam sahasre dve dve sate dve ca yojane

ekena nimishardhena kramaman


which means “It is remembered here that Sun (light) traverses 2,202 yojanas in half a nimeSa”


This has been variously discussed by many people in many places. I interpret it this way.


Unmesa and Nimesa are two aspects of blinking of eyes. Nimesa is closing of eye-lids and Unmesa is opening of eye-lids. Closing of eye-lids, Nimesa, takes 50-120 milliseconds, according to modern science. Total blinking of eye takes 400-750 milliseconds as opening of eye-lids (Unmesa) takes longer time.


Hence I map Nimesa to close to 120 milliseconds. Half-a-nimesa is 60 milliseconds in which sun travels 2202 yojanas. The Yojana used here is the Nara Yojana or Bhu Yojana, but not the Bha Yojana, as it is about sunlight reaching us or earth, and  not Sun itself.


Using Bhu Yojana, 2202 yojanas become 17616km. This translates to 293000 km per second which is close to speed of light.


The Yojanas for Surya Loka


Garuda Purana talks about 88000 Yojanas for Yama Loka and 100,000 Yojanas for extent of Surya Loka.


This Yojana is not about the Sun’s surface or distance between Sun and Earth. It is the extent to which the Surya Loka is spread. The Yojana used here is the Atma Yojana. Atma for us is the Surya and the Atma of Sun is its Core. 


The radius of the core of Sun is the distance of Atma Yojana, which is around 150000 kms . The radius of the core is the distance to the Atma (Center) of Atma (Outside of Core).


Thus Surya Loka has a radius of 150000*100000 km. The distance between Sun and Earth is 1000 Atma Yojanas, which is 150 million km. This is approximately the modern estimate too and is called one AU. The Solar system according to modern estimates spans 100 AU, which is same as what Garuda Purana says.


Yama Loka of Solar System – HelioSheath


At at distance of 80-100 AU from sun, modern science calls this region, heliosheath. Garuda Purna calls the region from 88 AU as Yama Loka or the world of Controller. This comes just after a turbulent region called ‘termination shock’, where the solar winds meet the interstellar winds and create a shock wave.  The Heliosheath is also a turbulent region.


After the Heliosheath is the heliopause region where solar winds stop and interstellar space begins.


HelioSheath is believed to be sending back solar wind back into solar system, very much like Yama sending back the souls to live on earth again. Garuda Purana says that people who lived righteous life enter YamaLoka from east (direction of sun, solar wind) and Yama sends them back to earth.


Heliosheath is also believed to be filtering out the cosmic rays and allowing the guided entry into solar system. Garuda Purana also says that people who followed the ‘divine’ ways or achieved divinity enter from West (cosmic rays entering from outside, from direction of interstellar space, opposite to sun) and Yama sends them to earth.


Thus the Heliosheath is the Yama Loka or the place which controls the entry and exit of Solar sytem. But that Yama Loka is not the abode of Universal Yama, that we salute in Sandhya Vandanam.


If time permits, I will write about Garuda Purana, the sixteen cities on way to Yama Loka, death and travel of soul, offering of pindas, concept of Hell and Cosmos etc.




More posts by this author:

Please follow and like us:

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.