During the Cosmic inflation epoch, the dark energy scalar field expanded, creating ‘space’ with vacuum inside it. Visualize it as the dark energy expanding suddenly on all sides leaving out an empty space in-between.
As the dark energy scalar field expanded (1) on all sides during cosmic inflation epoch, leaving space or creating vacuum in between, this like a ‘work done’ on the field. Whenever there is a ‘Work done’, there is a potential energy created. The potential energy created is the ‘inflation potential’..
The inflation potential (dakSa) interacting with force-fields (panchajani) creates the particles. The kinetic energy of the particles of Universe, brings Universe to existence is called ‘Sati’.
These particles were propagating in the maximum speeds of light. Hence Universe is said to be filled with radiation at this point of time. When Universe is filled with radiation, dark energy scalar field does not expand. The ‘havis’ is not given to Shiva.
All energy flows into the force-fields, they get heated up and the particles become Quark Gluon Plasma. This is the dakSa Yajna and burning of Sati (matter particles) in the dakSa Yajna. This is called Re-heating
dakSa’s progeny by Puranas
According to Purananas, Vishnu cuts the body of Sati into 51 pieces and from there the Universal evolution starts again.(2).
Before going into that let’s understand the progeny of dakSa as stated in the Bhagavata Purana. Though it appears each purAna states different names of dakSa’s progeny, all these names are equivalent of each other, if we see dakSa as inflation potential and various dakSa’s progeny as properties of energy.
We will also see how different names of dakSa’s progeny in different puranas map to each other in the next few posts.
Sons and Daughters of dakSa in Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana details the Sons and Daughters of dakSa, the inflation potential.
dakSa marries Pancajani and produces thousands of sons called ‘Haryazvas’. dakSa asks them to get married and reproduce further. But haryazvas are not interested in further procreation. They do penance and become part of the ‘Energy’.
dakSa then produces thousands of sons called ‘savalazvas’. But savalazvas also are not interested in further procreation. They also follow their brothers and become part of the ‘energy’.
dakSa then married ‘prasUti’ and produces sixteen daughters. Of these 13 daughters are married to dharma. Sati is married to Shiva, svAha is married to Agni and svadhA is married to Pitrs.
Sati destroys the dakSa Yajna and also becomes dead. Shiva wanders and Universe’s evolution stops further. Vishnu uses the sudarshan chakra to cut Sati’s body into 51 pieces. Each piece becomes a Shakti Sthal.
Shiva pacifies and stops wandering. Post dakSa Yajna, dakSa’s head gets replaced with a smaller ‘head’ a ‘goat head’. dakSa becomes a Shiva Gana.
dakSa marries asikni and produces 60 daughters. Of these 60 daughters 10 are married to dharma, 17 to kashyapa, 27 to Soma/chandra, 2 to bhuta, 2 to angira and 2 to krsazva.
Now Sati is reborn as pArvati to Himavat also called parvat. Himavat means ‘colder’. Parvat means ‘knotted’ or ‘binding’. pArvati gets married to Shiva.
Sthula/Male and Sukshma/Female
In Sanskrit, gross or sthula are depicted as male and subtle/sukshma are depicted as female. The ‘energies’ are depicted as sons and the properties of energies are depicted as daughters.
The sukshma or properties of energies (daughters) facilitate interactions of force-fields and progress the evolution further.
dakSa’s sons – Strong and Electroweak energies
When cosmic inflation occurred, there were five force-fields that existed. They were dark energy scalar field that releases energy, Higgs scalar field that restrains energy from movement, Strong force-field, Electro-weak force-field and Spinor fields of matter.
The inflation potential manifests as energy addition to these force-fields.
The sons of dakSa are the gross/sthula/external properties of force-fields that inflation potential causes. They manifest as energies in the Strong force-field and Electro-weak force-field.
‘harya’ means that ‘is to be divided’. Harya is the Electro-weak force that gets divided. Haryazvas are the energies that manifest in Electroweak force-field. Haryazvas, the energies of Electro-weak field, are the ‘thousands’ of sons of dakSa, the inflation potential, which did not progress the evolution further.
‘savala’ is translated as ‘a plant yielding soma juice’. I translate it as ‘Gluon condensates’ that yield Soma (Strong interaction). Savalazvas , the energies of the Strong force-field, the gluon condensates, are the thousands of sons of dakSa, the inflation potential, which did not progress the evolution further.
Haryazvas cannot evolve further without electroweak force getting divided. Savalazvas cannot evolve further as gluon condensates, unless they interact with spinor field and create quark particles.
Then dakSa, the inflation potential produces ‘daughters’ which are properties that allow force-fields to interact with each other.
dakSa’s daughters through prasUti
pra-sUti means brought forth. The inflation potential energizes the force-fields and brings forth properties in them. These properties brought forth are the dakSa’s daughters. These properties facilitate interaction and evolution of Universe.
In the Universe immediately after the Cosmic inflation, there are sixteen properties that are brought forth by the inflation potential in these force-fields. They are
- Probabilistic distribution of energy over space and time (‘wave’ nature)
- Heat (Vibrations of particles)
- Color Charge
- Weak charge
- Electromagnetic Charge
- Half integer Spin (fermions)
- Integer Spin (Vector Bosons)
- Residual entropy
- QCD Vacuum
- QED Vacuum
- Pair production from vacuum and Parity of pairs
- Kinetic energy of Particles
- Potential energy of Particles
- Flow of energy over space
Of these 16 properties, 13 properties are subjected to Conservation Laws. Hence they are said to be ‘married’ to dharma. Other 3 are not subjected conservation laws.
Dharma are laws that are conserved. Adharma are laws that are not conserved. When a property is married to dharma it means, the property is subject laws of Conservation.
Dharma has ten or thirteen wives, which indicates the properties (dakSa’s daughters) that are conserved.
The Conserved properties
The ten conservation laws (dharma)
There ten global exact conservation laws of Universe, as in the Standard Model. They are
- Probability Invariance (Kriya, titikSa, zAnti)
- Zeroth law of thermodynamics (zraddha)
- First law of thermodynamics (mUrti)
- Second law of thermodynamics (buddhi)
- Third law of thermodynamics (medha)
- Conservation of Parity ( CPT) (maitri)
- Conservation of Color Charge (Hri)
- Conservation of Charge (Unnati)
- Conservation of Weak Isospin (daya)
- Conservation of Momentum (tuSti, Pusti)
These ten conservation laws map to the thirteen wives of dharma in Bhagavata Purana. Some Puranas also talk of only 10 wives of dharma.
The 13 conservation laws operate in the early Universe before Vishnu manifests.
Of these 13 conservation laws, the QED vacuum, QCD vacuum and Full integer spin are
Kriya (Function over space and time, ‘wave’ nature)
The inflation potential causes ‘distributions of energy’ in the force-fields. The energy distribution is probabilistic in nature and a ‘function’ over time and space in the force-fields. ‘Kriya’ means ‘action’ over time or any ‘function’ that varies with time. Hence Kriya is said to be daughter of dakSa.
This Kriya, energy distribution function over space and time, when subjected to Conservation laws (dharma) causes the ‘union’ or ‘yoking’ of various force-fields or facilitates their interaction or mixing. ‘Yoga’ means yoking or mixing up. Hence Kriya is said to have a son ‘Yoga’ on marrying ‘dharma’.
The Conservation law involved here is the law of probabilistic invariance which says at all times, the total probability of a particle distributed over a given space is 1.
Physical ‘Particle’ nature (mUrti)
The inflation potential manifests as energy in the force-fields and gives rise to particle ‘forms’ with ‘mass’. The physical forms with ‘mass’ are called ‘mUrti’. Hence dakSa is said to have a daughter ‘mUrti’.
These particle forms with ‘mass’ when subjected to laws of conservation (dharma), gives rise to interacting and non-interacting matter forms. The interacting particles with ‘mass’ are called matter that make the Universe and is called ‘nara’. The non-interacting particles with ‘mass’ are called dark-matter, which also makes the Universe and is called ‘nAryaNa’.
Hence nara (matter) nArayaNa (dark matter) are said to be sons of ‘mUrti’ (physical forms with mass) and dharma (laws of conservation), while mUrti (physical forms with mass) is said to be daughter of dakSa (inflation potential).
The conservation law involved here is the law of conservation of Mass.
Thermal Energy (zradhha)
The inflation potential manifests as energy in the force-fields and gives rise to particle ‘forms’ and also ‘vibrates’ the particles. These vibrations of energy of particles is perceived as thermal energy or ‘heat’.
zrA means ‘heating’ ‘boiling’ ‘riping’. ‘dhA’ means ‘bestowing’ or ‘placing’. zraddhA means bestowing heat. Hence zraddhA, the thermal energy that vibrates the particles is known as ‘daughter’ of dakSa, the inflation potential.
zraddha is also known as ‘faith’ because faith is nothing but the ‘heat’ that cooks/ripens/matures us.
zraddha the heat that cooks when subjected to laws of conservation (dharma) produces zubhA. bhA means radiation of energy. zubhA means radiance. Since the thermal energy causes radiation of energy, (heat causes light), zubha is said to be a daughter of zraddha.
The conservation law involved here is the zeroth law of thermodynamics, which says all heat is one heat.
Color Charge (Hri or lajja)
The inflation potential manifests as energy in the force-fields and gives rise to particle ‘forms’ with ‘Color Charge’. The Color Charge is a property of particles that make them bind together internally because of which these particles cannot be expressed as they are.
For eg. gluons and quarks carry the color charge due to which they bind internally and can never express themselves as they are.
Hri is this property that binds and prevents the expression. Hri is translated as ‘bashful’, as being bashful binds internally and prevents expression. Hri is also called ‘lajja’. Hence Hri or lajja is said to the daughter of dakSa, the inflation potential.
When particles with this property of Color Charge is subjected to laws of Conservation (dharma), they produce hadrons (baryons and mesons), which become the atomic nucleus. They become the residence or foundation of all matter of the Universe. Hence pra-zrayas (residing, leaning on a foundation) is called the son of Hri and Dharma. Because the quarks and gluons ‘collapse’ (vinaya) into a nucleus, vinaya is also described as son of lajja and dharma.
The conservation law involved here is the law of conservation of Color Charge.
Weak Charge (daya)
The inflation potential manifests as energy in the force-fields and gives rise to particle ‘forms’ with ‘Weak Charge’. The Weak Charge is a property of particles that make them to ‘decay’ and give out the ‘mass’ they have in terms of new particles.
For eg. all left handed particles have this Weak Charge because of which they decay and transform from higher mass to lower mass, while giving out new particle types.
‘daya’ is this property of giving out. ‘da’ is giving and ‘daya’ is the property of giving out particles. The weak charge property is named ‘daya’ as it causes giving out newer particles. ‘daya’ is also used to indicate compassion that makes us give away what we have. Hence ‘daya’ is said to be the daughter of dakSa the inflation potential.
When particles with this property of weak charge (daya) is subjected to laws of conservation (dharma), the particles radiate/give away newer particles and become non-radiating over a period. They become stable.
bha means radiation of energy. bhaya means the property of radiating away energy. After giving out particles (daya), the residual particles become abhaya (not radiating energy away, becoming stable or secure). Hence daya’s (Weak Charge) son by dharma (Conservation laws) is said to be abhaya (Non radiation).
The conservation law involved here is the law of conservation of Weak Isospin.
Electromagnetic Charge (Unnati or Lakshmi)
The inflation potential manifests as energy in the force-fields and gives rise to particle ‘forms’ with ‘Electromagnetic Charge’. The is a property of particles that make them to bind, break, combine and progresses the evolution of Universal matter forms.
For eg. particles with EM charge causes all the atomic elemetns, compounds, biological beings and advances in intelligence.
‘Unnati’ is this property of electromagnetic charge that progresses the Universal evolution. ‘Unnati’ means progress. Particles with EM charge are called ‘Lakshmi’. Hence Unnati or Lakshmi is said to the daughter of dakSa, the inflation potential.
When particles with this property of EM charge are subjected to laws of Conservation (dharma), they get ‘inflamed’ or ‘lighted’ or ‘kindled’ and release photons or EM radiation. This is called ‘darpa’.
‘dRp’ means to light up or inflame or kindled up. ‘darpa’ is the EM radiation. ‘darpaNa’ is the mirror that reflects the EM radiation. Since EM radiation is giving away energy without giving away any particles, it is also sometimes used to indicate ‘Pride’. This darpa, the EM radiation is said to be the son of Unnati/Lakshmi with Dharma.
The conservation law involved here is the law of conservation of Charge.
Property of Integer Spin (tuSti)
The inflation potential manifests as energy in the force-fields and gives rise to particle ‘forms’ with ‘Spin – 1’ property.
Spin is an intrinsic angular momentum of particles that arise out of force fields. The Spin-1 are those particles that possess an amount of intrinsic angular momentum such that when they are rotated, they come back to their original configuration after 360* rotation.
Due to this property, any number of these particles can occupy the same ‘quantum state’, which means any number of these particles are ‘contended’ to remain in the same quantum state.
Hence these are called ‘tuSitas’. Tusti means remaining contended in the same state. Tusitas are said to be a class of divinities. In modern parlance, they are called ‘bosons’. Hence tuSti, the integer spin property is said to be the daughter of dakSa, the inflation potential.
When subjected to laws of conservation (dharma), the tuSti (integer spin particles), mix up / mingle/blend/unite with each other in such a way they occupy the same ‘space’ also. ‘mud’ means mixing up/blending/uniting etc. Hence ‘muda’ is said to be the son of tuSti and dharma.
Since tuSti the property of integer spin produces muda, which is mingling up in same space, tuSitas/bosons are said to mediate/transfer the different forces (Strong, Electromagnetic, Weak).
The conservation law involved here is the law of conservation of Momentum.
Property of Half-Integer Spin (puSti)
The inflation potential manifests as energy in the force-fields and gives rise to particle ‘forms’ with ‘Spin – 1/2’ property.
Spin is an intrinsic angular momentum of particles that arise out of force fields. The Spin-1/2 are those particles that possess an amount of intrinsic angular momentum such that when they are rotated, they come back to their original configuration after 720* rotation.
Due to this property, any number of these particles cannot occupy the same ‘quantum state’, which means these particles ‘grow’ and do not remain contended. Pusti means ‘growing’. Hence this property of half-integer spin is called puSti. puSti, the half-integer spin is said to be the daugther of dakSa, the inflation potential.
When subjected to laws of conservation (dharma), the puSti (half-integer spin particles in different quantum states) occupy distinct spaces of their own, though they may interact with each other. ‘smaya’ is this property of having/possessing distinct characteristics. smaya is often used to indicate pride or arrogance or this distinctive behavior. Hence ‘smaya’ (distinctive behavior) is said to be the son of puSti (growth) and dharma.
The conservation law involved here is law of Conservation of Momentum.
Residual entropy (medha)
The inflation potential manifests as energy in the force-fields and gives rise to particle ‘forms’ in various microscopic states. These microscopic states particles constitute the ‘information content’ of the Universe and is the entropy of the Universe.
There is some entropy/information content in any force-field (more than one configuration of microscopic states of particles) even at the zero kelvin. This is called ‘residual entropy’.
‘Medha’ means essence or the juice. Hence this residual entropy property is called ‘medha’. Hence medha, the residual entropy is said to daughter of dakSa.
Subjected to laws of conservation, the residual entropy (more than one microscopic state configuration) is handed down over to subsequent matter forms and more microscopic configurations are built up on top of residual entropy. ‘Smrta’ means that is handed over. Thus Smrta is said to be son of medha and dharma.
The conservation law involved here is the third law of thermodynamics on residual entropy.
The inflation potential manifests as energy in the force-fields and gives rise to particles with different energy states. These microscopic states particles constitute the ‘information content’ of the Universe and is the entropy of the Universe.
This entropy also indicates the amount of energy that becomes unavailable for performing work, as it becomes the ‘information’. This entropy of the Universe, the information content is the ‘buddhi’. Hence buddhi, the entropy is said to be the daughter of dakSa, the inflation potential.
When this information content or entropy or buddhi is subjected to laws of conservation, it results in increasing entropy or information content or newer microscopic states. These newer microscopic states are the ‘artha’. ‘arth’ means ‘that we strive to obtain’ (goals or meaning or wealth etc). Thus artha is said to be the son of ‘buddhi’.
The conservation law involved here is the second law of thermodynamics of increasing entropy.
QCD Vacuum Energy (sAnthi)
The inflation potential manifests as energy in the strong force-fields and gives rise to QCD vacuum. QCD Vacuum energy is the ‘ground state’ of gluon and quark condensates, as in the Standard Model.
zAnti means peace, tranquility. As the QCD vacuum is the ground state of quark and gluon condensates, it is called zAnti, the daugther of dakSa, the inflation potential.
When QCD vacuum is subjected to laws of conservation (dharma), QCD vacuum gives rise to several ‘apertures’ or ‘holes’ on which excitations create complex quark based matter forms.
kha means empty space or vacuum or an aperture or hole. sukha means a good empty space or vacuum or hole or aperture on which this evolution happens. Hence sukha is said to be daughter of dharma and zAnti.
sukha is also used to indicate ‘comfortably fitting’ in a place or being in stable states.
The conservation law involved here is the Probability invariance.
QED Vacuum Energy (TitikSa)
The inflation potential manifests as energy in the electromagnetic force-fields and gives rise to QED vacuum. QED Vacuum energy is the ‘ground state’ of electromagnetic field, when the fields are quantized. The QED vacuum gives rise to photons and leptons.
The QCD vacuum gives rise to ‘bound hadron states’, which leads to nucleus formation. But it is the QED vacuum that gives rise to all the interactions of Universe and evolution of Universe, because interactions/evolutions of Universe is based on electromagnetic field.
The QED vacuum ‘endures’ or ‘forbears’ all the fluctuations around it as EM interactions evolve the Universe. This enduring is called ‘TitikSa’.
When subjected to laws of conservation, QED vacuum leads to the well-being of the Universe in the sense all Universal evolutions are on top of it. Hence it is said to produce ‘Ksema’, which means well-being.
The conservation law involved here is the Probability invariance.
Pair production / Parity (Maitri)
The inflation potential manifests as energy in the force-fields and gives rise to pair production of particles from the QCD and QED vacuum. The particles are produced in pairs. Particles in pairs are ‘conjugate’ of each other, which means their electromagnetic charges and their ‘chirality’ (handedness) are different. That is particle and anti-particle are produced together.
For eg. a positively charged right-handed particle is pair produced with negatively charged left handed particles. These two are subjected to the universal laws in the same way. This is called parity or equality. ‘Maitri’ is this equality or sameness amongst the pairs. Hence maitri is said to be the daughter of dakSa, the inflation potential.
Such pair produced particles/anti-particles when subjected to conservation laws (dharma) produce a residuum of particles thereby creating the dominance of particles. prasAda is the ‘residuum’. Hence maitri (sameness or parity) is said to produce prasAda (residuum) of particles when subjected to dharma.
The conservation law involved here is the law of conservation of Parity or more precisely CPT.
The non-conserved properties of energy
Kinetic Energy (Sati)
The inflation potential causes ‘increase of Kinetic energy’ in the force-fields. ‘Sat’ means existence. ‘Sati’ is the energy of the existence. The energy of existence is the ‘Kinetic energy’, the energy in the ‘motion’ (thermal or spatial). Hence Sati is said to be the daughter of dakSa, the inflation potential.
When this Sati (KE) gets married to Shiva, which means, energy is added to existence (say in the spinor field that generate particles), they increase the fluctuation of particles and cause more ‘heat’. Thus ‘Re-heating’ occurs and that is dakSa Yajna (3)
While total energy is conserved in any system, the Kinetic energy alone is not conserved. Hence this property is not married to dharma, but to Shiva (KE increases with addition of energy).
Potential energy (SvadhA)
The inflation potential causes ‘increase of potential energy’ in terms of complex matter forms. Sva-dhA means self-supporting or self-holding. It is the potential energy that ‘holds’ the complex particles and matter forms. Hence svadhA is said to be the daughter of dakSa, the inflation potential.
These complex particles are the ‘Pitas’. The potential energy in these complex particles are the sva-dhA.
While total energy is conserved in any system, the potential energy alone is not conserved. Hence this property is not married to dharma, but to Pita (Potential energy which is self-holding, increases with addition of energy).
Energy flow (svAha)
The inflation potential causes energy to ‘flow’ in space on its own, from one place to another. Sva means self. aha means I grant. Sva-aha (or svAha) means ‘I grant mine’. svAha is asking someone to take what’s ours. svAha is this flow of energy from one place to another. Hence svAha is said to be daughter of dakSa, the inflation potential.
This energy flow is associated with agni, which is transfer of energy. Energy is transferred across force-fields and matter forms due to interactions. This is ‘Agni’. That energy transfer (Agni) is associated with a physical flow of energy (svAha) over space. That is svAha. Hence svAha is said to be consort of Agni.
Let’s look at dakSa’s 60 daughters through asikni in the next post.
More posts by this author:
- Daksha Yajna – Cosmic Inflation and Re-heating
- maruts- Quanta of force-fields
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 3
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 2
- Rsis of the Vedas – Part 1